Rich Vaughn, International Fertility Law Group: Israel Continues Gay Surrogaccy Ban

Israeli Government Continues Surrogacy Ban for Gay Dads

Tens of thousands of LGBT Israelis and their allies took to the streets Sunday, protesting a new Israeli surrogacy law that denies gay men the right to become parents via surrogacy, even as it gives the green light to lesbian intended parents and single women.

Israeli law previously limited access to surrogacy within Israel to married heterosexual couples, forcing LGBT and single intended parents to pursue their dreams of parenthood abroad. Our firm, International Fertility Law Group, has been honored to work with many Israeli families.

On July 18, Israel’s parliament, the Knesset, passed a law expanding access to surrogacy to single women and lesbians. But an amendment that would have allowed single men or gay couples to become parents via surrogacy was voted down.

Israeli LGBT activists were outraged that Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who previously had pledged support for allowing gay men to use surrogates, voted against the amendment, apparently under pressure from ultra-Orthodox Jewish members of his coalition government, according to the Associated Press. The Times of Israel reported that Netanyahu voted against the amendment in exchange for Orthodox support of another controversial piece of legislation, a Jewish nation-state bill also coming up for vote.

In the face of mounting criticism, Netanyahu claimed that he voted against the amendment on single men in order to ensure the surrogacy bill would pass and promised to support a separate bill legalizing surrogacy for gay couples in the future.

An Island of LGBT Acceptance

Surrounded by countries where homosexuality is outlawed and LGBT people persecuted, Israel is known internationally for its acceptance of LGBT people and has become a popular destination for LGBT travelers worldwide. Gay men and lesbians serve openly in Israel’s military and parliament.

Israel initially banned surrogacy in 1988. In 1995 an Israeli couple, who could not conceive due to the wife’s cervical cancer, successfully challenged the ban, leading to the formation of a commission to study the issue. The commission’s official report recommended that surrogacy be legalized. A short time later, the Israeli Supreme Court overturned the surrogacy ban.

The Supreme Court decision forced the Knesset to come up with an alternative law. As The Tower Magazine reported in 2014, the resulting law allowed surrogacy in Israel, but only under tightly restricted criteria.

On the one hand, it includes many progressive elements, such as state subsidy of the process, as well as mandating that approval committees be made up equally of men and women. But in concession to the religious parties, it mandated that the surrogate be unmarried (which went against the commission’s recommendation), unrelated to either of the parents, of the same religion as the parents, and that the mother’s egg (not the surrogate’s) and the father’s sperm (not a donor’s) be used – measures to mediate some of the rabbinic concerns about the process. Perhaps the most limiting condition in the new law was that the process was only legal for married couples in Israel – which, by excluding all singles, made the process out of reach for gays domestically.

While the LGBT civil rights movement in the U.S. and much of the world focused in recent years on legalizing same-sex marriage, in Israel the push has been for equal parentage rights for LGBT people. Marriage in Israel is strictly a religious institution rather than a civil one, and lots of people are prevented from marrying, including couples of different faiths, as Slate reports.

In Israel, the fight for LGBT equality has centered on the right to parenthood. In addition to banning gay Israelis from using surrogacy to create families, Israel has a long history of LGBT discrimination in family law.

In 2017 gay activists sued the government over its policy of giving heterosexual couples who want to adopt priority over same-sex couples. As the result of the discriminatory practice, between 2008 and 2017, just three same-sex couples—out of 550 who applied— were able to adopt, compared to more than 1,000 heterosexual couples who were able to adopt during the same period, according to a report by The Jewish Journal. The suit was dismissed based on the government’s promise to introduce new legislation to remedy the practice by June 2018—a promise which has yet to be kept.

Just as growing acceptance of same-sex marriage and advances in assisted reproductive technology created a “gayby boom” in many parts of the world, Israel, which has a strong family-based culture, has seen an explosion of LGBT parenting. Prevented from legal surrogacy at home, hundreds of LGBT Israelis traveled to other countries where surrogacy laws were less restrictive or non-existent.

India was a popular destination for Israeli intended parents until 2013, when its government began restricting medical visas for surrogacy to married heterosexual couples only. The tide then shifted to Thailand, where parentage laws were even less favorable to gay and lesbian parents, and where a sudden government crackdown left many Israeli parents and newborns stranded between countries for a time, as we reported in 2014.

Even for babies born via surrogates in the U.S., with birth certificates listing both intended parents, Israeli officials have a history of imposing onerous requirements for blood testing and other documentation before granting Israeli citizenship.

The Knesset’s vote to continue the surrogacy ban on single Israeli men and gay couples led to what is believed to be the largest demonstration for LGBT equality in Israel’s history, with actions in 17 cities and an estimated crowd of 100,000 marching in Tel Aviv earlier this week. Discriminatory policies create an unfair financial burden for LGBT intended parents, who, unlike heterosexual married couples, receive no government subsidy to offset costs and who may pay as much as $100,000 for surrogacy abroad. Those same policies also confer second-class status on LGBT Israelis and their families.

Colleague Victoria Gelfand, an Israeli attorney specializing in surrogacy, adoption and LGBT families, says the recent vote upholding the ban on surrogacy for gay dads was the final straw for LGBT activists fed up with decades of discriminatory government policies. At a press conference today, three days after Sunday’s demonstrations, she writes, “the leaders of the LGBT community presented their demands from the government: preventing crime and violence against the community, recognition of gay families, adjustment of welfare services, equality in healthcare, as well as education for tolerance and acceptance of different families and identities.”  It remains to be seen if their voices will prevail over the conservatism and religious dogmatism now dominant in Israel’s government.




Richard Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn is founder and principal of International Fertility Law Group, one of the world’s largest and best-known law firms focused exclusively on assisted reproductive technology, or ART, including in vitro fertilization (IVF), surrogacy, sperm donation or egg donation. Rich is co-author of the book “Developing A Successful Assisted Reproduction Technology Law Practice,” American Bar Association Publishing, 2017.

Peiya Wang
Paralegal (律师助理)

Peiya Wang joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2015, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases and provides translation services for many of IFLG’s international clients. Peiya moved to the United States in 2012 to attend Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, receiving a Master of Science degree in Global Studies and International Affairs in 2014. Peiya moved to Los Angeles in 2015, received her paralegal certification from UCLA Extension, and obtained her second Master of Science degree in Legal Studies from Loyola Law School. Peiya relocated back to her hometown, Beijing, China in 2019 and works from IFLG’s Beijing office. When away from the office, Peiya is a dragon boat paddler and a ballroom dancer, where she favors Rumbas and Cha-chas. She is fluent in Mandarin and English.

Luis Sosa

Luis R. Sosa joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2016, where he enjoys pursuing his passion for family and reproductive law. While working toward his bachelor’s degree at Florida International University which he received in 2013, Luis worked as a paralegal and legal assistant for family law litigation firms in Miami and Washington, D.C. As a paralegal and case manager for IFLG, Luis, who is bilingual in English and Spanish, manages surrogacy, egg donation and other reproductive law cases. Luis has worked for IFLG in both Los Angeles as well as San Francisco, and is currently based in Dallas, Texas. In addition to spending time with husband Randy and dog Marty, Luis enjoys being outdoors and appreciating the arts.

Toni Hughes

After receiving her B.S. in Business Management, Toni joined IFLG to pursue her dream of working in the legal field. As a Paralegal with over 10 years of experience in the assisted reproduction technology field, Toni is our Managing Paralegal, responsible for training and managing our paralegal staff. From drafting legal documents to assisting our clients with post-birth matters, Toni embraces the challenge of learning something new in this field each day. Besides spending time with her son, Jordan, Toni enjoys exploring new things, cooking, spending time with family and friends, and serving as a Youth Advisor for “Next Generation.”


Kim has over 30 years of experience in the legal field and has worked exclusively in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 1999. Kim is a senior case manager responsible for managing parental establishment cases and interacting with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorneys across the country. With three children of her own, Kim understands the importance of family and finds working in this area of law a rewarding experience.

Rich Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn combined his personal passion as a father of twin boys born via assisted reproductive technology (ART) with more than 20 years of experience in business and technology law to build International Fertility Law Group. Today IFLG is one of the most successful and best-known law firms in the world focused exclusively on fertility law, helping thousands of intended parents through empathetic listening, compassionate guidance, and unmatched legal expertise. As an advocate for reproductive freedom, Rich also contributes his knowledge and time to improving the understanding and practice of ART law, most recently as a founder of and speaker at the first Cambridge University International Surrogacy Symposium held in June 2019, as immediate past chair of the American Bar Association ART Committee, and as a popular presenter to law schools, faculty and advocacy organizations all over the world.

Elizabeth Tamayo

Elizabeth received her Bachelors of Science degree in Criminal Justice from California State University of Los Angeles. Shortly after graduating, she continued her education at the University of California, Los Angeles where she obtained her Paralegal certificate. Elizabeth is fluent in Spanish and has been in the legal field since 2009. She is excited to be a part of the IFLG Team helping families realize their dreams.

Sunny Chien

Sunny joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2017, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s international clients. She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy from California State University of Los Angeles, where she graduated cum laude. Sunny is bilingual in English and Mandarin and has extensive experience as a legal assistant and paralegal at Los Angeles-area law firms. She is excited to be part of the IFLG team. In her spare time, Sunny enjoys spending time with her family and their dog, going to the beach, cooking, and being outdoors.

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Molly O'Brien

Fertility law attorney Molly O’Brien began working in the field of assisted reproduction technology (ART) in 2005, at an egg donation agency and a surrogacy agency where she became familiar with all aspects of in-vitro fertilization, egg donation and the financial aspects of surrogacy. Since becoming an attorney in 2011, Molly has drafted and negotiated surrogacy, egg donation, sperm donation embryo donation agreements for hundreds of her clients all over the world.

Phoebe Sadler

Fertility law attorney Phoebe Sadler has a background in family law and has been practicing exclusively in the area of assisted reproduction technology (ART) law since 2018.

Rubina Aslanyan

Rubina has an extensive background in the legal field as a paralegal in Family Law and has worked in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 2012. Her area of focus is in managing and assisting clients with surrogacy, egg donation, and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s domestic and international clients. During her spare time, Rubina enjoys spending time with her family and dog Bella, traveling and cooking.

Alexander Espinoza
Legal Assistant

Alexander joined IFLG as a legal assistant in 2019, where he manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases. Alex is bilingual in English and Spanish and has been in the legal field for 23 years. Alex is excited to join the IFLG team and pursuing his will to help others in the reproductive law process. In his spare time he loves spending time with his family and friends, being outdoors, road trips, loves music and dancing.

Cara Stecker
Senior Paralegal

After receiving her paralegal certificate in 2005, Cara began working in assisted reproductive law. During the fifteen years Cara has worked in this field, she has gained a wide range of experience and knowledge that she uses to help better assist clients and those involved in the assisted reproductive journey. Cara’s primary roles involve managing parental establishment matters and coordination with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorney network, drafting contracts and parental establishment court documents and providing support to other team members. Cara finds great joy in being a small part of a team of caring people who help others achieve their dream of having a family. In her spare time, Cara enjoys spending time with her husband and three children, watching her children play the sports they love, and she enjoys, running, cycling and exploring the outdoors in the sun.

Stephanie Kimble

Stephanie received her BS in History and Political Thought from Concordia University Irvine in 2015 and her Paralegal Certificate from University of San Diego later that same year. She has been working as a Paralegal since 2016 in Family and Reproductive Law. She is excited to be part of International Fertility Law Group working on managing Surrogacy, Egg donation and Parental Establishment Cases.

Trish Pittman
Assistant Financial Coordinator

With more than 20 years of experience in the field of accounting, Trish joined the IFLG team in 2019 as Assistant Financial Coordinator. Her client-facing focus at IFLG is to assist with all client trust accounting. Trish is the mother of two daughters and enjoys spending time teaching and learning new things from them. In her free time, she loves long walks in the park and reading suspense and mystery novels.

Katie Deaquino
Senior Paralegal

Katie is a Senior Paralegal with IFLG and has dedicated over sixteen years to the areas of surrogacy and reproductive law. She received her Paralegal Certificate from Coastline Community College and has worked with some of the top law firms in the assisted reproduction community. Katie is also a commissioned Notary Public. With IFLG, Katie manages Surrogacy, Egg Donation, and Parental Establishment cases and provides support to other IFLG team members. Katie truly enjoys helping others build their families through assisted reproduction and is thankful she has had the rewarding experience of assisting IFLG clients. Katie often spends her free time with her Husband, four young children and her bulldog “Bella”.

Elsa Jimenez
Legal Assistant

Elsa joined IFLG as a Legal Assistant in 2019, bringing more than 35 years of experience working in the legal profession (concentrating in tort and litigation matters). At IFLG she assists surrogates with their surrogacy and parental matters. The oldest of five siblings, born and raised in East Los Angeles to Mexican immigrant parents, Elsa loves “seeing the beauty of families forming” through assisted reproductive technology. She and her husband Carlos have four children and one grandson. Elsa enjoys jazz and ’80s music, being outdoors in nature, collecting teacups and tea pots, and spending time with her close-knit family.