IFLG 5 Reasons You Need A Surrogacy Lawyer Rich Vaughn

5 Reasons You Need A Surrogacy Lawyer

For any intended parents beginning the journey to creating a family via surrogacy, one of the first steps should be to consult with an experienced surrogacy attorney.

As a founding partner of International Fertility Law Group, I dedicated the practice exclusively to helping intended parents who are building their families via assisted reproductive technologies such as egg donation, sperm donation, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and surrogacy.

More than a decade ago, my spouse and I became parents of twin boys using assisted reproduction. In our case, the boys were conceived via IVF using sperm from each of us and donated oocytes, or eggs. A surrogate carried the boys to term and gave birth.

That challenging and joyful experience inspired me to leave a successful career in corporate law for the exciting and rapidly changing field of assisted reproductive technology law, or fertility law.

With some background in family and fertility law from my law school days, I was fascinated by the legal processes required at every step to ensure the rights and responsibilities of all parties—our egg donor, our surrogate and our own rights as parents. 

When we began our path to parenthood, we were fortunate to have the services of a veteran surrogacy lawyer who ensured we had the proper documentation and court orders to protect our family legally. Perhaps even more importantly, he helped prepare us for what to expect and the critical decisions that had to be made at each step in the reproductive law process.

The services of an experienced surrogacy lawyer are essential in protecting families created via ART. Here are five reasons intended parents need a surrogacy attorney.

1. An experienced surrogacy attorney will guide you every step of the way on your path to parenthood.

Our IFLG team of attorneys and paralegals have helped thousands of intended parents from all over the world as they become parents through egg or sperm donation, IVF and/or surrogacy.

Recently, even in the midst of a global pandemic, we have experienced a “baby boom” of client babies being born, and we have helped dozens of intended parents travel to the U.S. to be present for the birth of their babies and get their babies safely back home.

Babies and the families who love them are the reason we do what we do! It is our mission and greatest joy to support and guide them on this miraculous journey!

2. Surrogacy law, as well as laws governing how parentage is established, vary widely from state to state and from country to country.

Some jurisdictions are simply more surrogacy friendly.

Despite years of work by organizations such as the American Bar Association ART Committee and the National Conference of Commissioners of Uniform State Laws, state lawmakers and surrogacy advocates to modernize and standardize parentage and surrogacy laws across the United States, a diverse patchwork of laws persists. 

Many U.S. states have enacted clear and effective surrogacy laws that provide guidelines for assisted reproduction health care, for surrogacy agreements and for determining parental authority. In other states, there are few laws on the books, and courts typically look to existing case law for guidance. In a few states where clear laws exist, surrogacy is so severely restricted as to effect a ban. 

For example, under existing New York surrogacy laws, only so-called “altruistic” surrogacy is legal; in other words, it is not legal to compensate a surrogate for time, inconvenience or discomfort. But even if a surrogate is willing, a surrogacy agreement—essential to establish the rights and obligations of all parties—is not enforceable in court.

 The surrogacy process for New York intended parents will improve dramatically in February 2021. Earlier this year, New York legislators passed a sweeping package of reproductive and parentage law reforms, removing the decades-old ban on compensated surrogacy in New York State. This reform included a Surrogate’s Bill of Rights and basic requirements for surrogacy agreements.

Meanwhile, the state of California is known for its progressive laws governing assisted reproduction and parental establishment, which allow intended parents to obtain pre-birth court orders of parentage, so that the intended parents, and not the surrogate, are established as legal parents from the moment of birth.

An experienced surrogacy attorney must be knowledgeable about the variations in state laws and about which jurisdictions are most favorable for establishing the legal parentage of intended parents and will have the ability to work with local attorneys versed in working with the local courts on surrogacy cases. Our firm, IFLG, has established a nationwide network of highly qualified consulting and affiliated attorneys, and with this network (the longest such established national network) we have helped thousands of intended parents navigate the variations in state laws in the U.S.

Just as laws vary from state to state in the U.S., surrogacy and parentage laws vary widely from nation to nation. Likewise, some jurisdictions have clear laws governing surrogacy; in other countries, laws are non-existent, and there is little regulation of surrogacy or other fertility treatments.

For intended parents who travel to the United States or another country as part of their surrogacy journey, the experienced surrogacy lawyer will help establish a relationship with an attorney in their home country.

This home-country attorney must be familiar with the law and documentation required to ensure that, when the family returns home with their newborn, the intended parents are recognized as legal parents, and the baby is recognized as a citizen of the home country. Our clients at IFLG benefit from our international network of experienced family law attorneys in 92 countries.

3. ART laws and fertility laws are continually changing.

This is in response to advances in this rapidly evolving technology and in response to changes in how families are created and what it means to be a parent. 

The world has changed immensely over the past decade, with the growing acceptance of and access to assisted reproduction technologies, such as surrogacy, as family-building options and with changing definitions of family and parentage.

In the United States, which legalized same-sex marriage nationwide in 2015, lawmakers and courts have differed from state to state in their acceptance and embrace of new family structures. Since then, several states have introduced new laws imposing new limitations on reproductive rights and even seeking to establish the “personhood” of embryos, even before they are viable outside the womb. 

Experienced surrogacy attorneys will keep their fingers on the pulse of the reproductive and parentage laws in their jurisdictions. They will be able to help guide the intended parent on what is required to comply with local requirements.

The attorneys should have a proven track record of working successfully with local judges and government agencies.

4. An experienced surrogacy attorney will work with you to draft a legally enforceable surrogacy agreement.

The agreement should clearly state the intentions, rights and responsibilities of all parties.

A correctly prepared surrogacy agreement will be customized to the intended parents’ and surrogate’s unique circumstances. Ideally, all parties will have carefully discussed the myriad of issues addressed in the surrogacy contract well before the agreement is completed and signed. To work, the agreement must be fair and balanced in considering both parties’ needs, rights, obligations and responsibilities.

A proper surrogacy agreement will, at a minimum, address the following issues relating to the pregnancy, delivery and post-delivery:

Surrogate’s Intention

The surrogacy agreement will stipulate that the surrogate intends to bear a child or children for the intended parents and agrees, with her husband or significant other, if applicable, to work to ensure a healthy pregnancy to the best of her ability.


Arguably the most significant provision in any surrogacy agreement is who will be the legal parent of the resulting baby or babies. In the surrogacy agreement, the surrogate (and her spouse or significant other, if applicable) will expressly waive all parental rights, and the intended parents will express their intention to be the legal parents of the offspring, assuming all parental responsibilities.

Surrogate Health

A proper surrogacy agreement will unequivocally state the surrogate’s right to protect herself: the child she will bear is the intended parents’ baby, but it’s her body, and the agreement must incorporate respect for both. This mutual respect between the parties is a cornerstone of the agreement and the trust that must exist between the parties and will guide the contractual discussion of a great number of emotionally charged issues.

Selective Reduction or Termination of Pregnancy

Agreement between all parties on the selective reduction of embryos or termination of the pregnancy must be part of a properly prepared surrogacy agreement. This provision will address who has the right, with medical advice, to decide whether to reduce the number of embryos, as in the case of multiples or serious disease/defect/abnormalities, or to terminate the pregnancy and under what conditions.

It is essential that all parties are on the same page before a crisis or the need for tough decisions arises. Typically a surrogate will have undergone psychological screening to assess her suitability for surrogacy and a candid conversation with the intended parents, long before the surrogacy agreement is drafted. The lawyer’s office is not the place for IPs and surrogates to broach these difficult questions for the first time.

Embryo Transfer

The surrogacy agreement will typically state that the surrogate will follow the medical instructions given by the clinic staff or IVF physician without detailing the specifics of the procedure. While the IVF physician will decide when the embryo transfer will occur and how many embryos will be transferred, sometimes the decision on how many embryos will be implanted is made at the last minute, due to factors such as embryo viability.

The agreement should state how many attempted embryo transfers the surrogate will undergo over a specific period of time and how many embryos the surrogate will agree to carry.

Governing Law

The surrogacy contract will stipulate what state’s or jurisdiction’s laws will govern the agreement.

Conduct During Pregnancy

The surrogacy agreement will address the conduct of all during the pregnancy. Typically, the surrogate agrees to follow the doctor’s instructions regarding physical activity, lifestyle, nutrition, travel and travel restrictions, and post-birth conduct relating to breast milk pumping if applicable. The agreement also covers the frequency and type of contact and communication between the surrogate and intended parents during the pregnancy and after.


Intended parents often wish to be present in the delivery room, so the terms of their participation in the delivery also should be part of the surrogacy agreement. The agreement also will state whether the surrogate agrees to deliver by C-section upon doctors’ advice, or as is sometimes the case, it is medically necessary for the surrogate to deliver by C-section.

Intended Parents’ Relationship

The surrogacy agreement will stipulate that the intended parents are the legal parents of the baby or babies. That parental responsibility persists even in the event of separation, divorce or death of one of the intended parents.

Post-birth Contact

Most surrogacy agreements state that both parties are free to stay in touch until they decide otherwise. Some agreements stipulate the frequency of post-birth contact or require an exchange of photographs every so often, according to the clients’ wishes. Many surrogates and intended parents continue to have a positive relationship following the birth. There is no right or wrong approach.

Surrogacy Escrow Account

Surrogacy agreements typically require that a trust or escrow account be set up into which the intended parents deposit funds for payment of the surrogate’s fees and expense reimbursements. The agreement should stipulate whether funds are deposited all up-front or in installments, how long the account remains open after birth and the minimum balance required.

Surrogate Health Insurance

The surrogacy agreement should establish what insurance the surrogate is using for her maternity healthcare and who is responsible for the premiums. Intended parents are responsible for any medical costs not covered under the surrogate’s policy, as long as those uncovered costs are related to the surrogacy.

The intended and legal parents are generally responsible for all medical expenses and insurance coverage for the baby or babies from the moment of birth.

Intended parents who do not reside in the United States may find that there are limited options for obtaining insurance coverage for their baby, but with enough advance research and preparation, insurance can be put in place, or cash rates can be negotiated with the birth hospital.

Privacy, Confidentiality and Social Media

The surrogacy agreement typically requires each party to disclose personal information as needed for the surrogacy, with the shared responsibility to ensure each parties’ privacy and confidentiality. Details about the surrogacy contract beyond names and basic location information should not be shared without permission of the other parties.

The agreement should establish the ground rules about talking about the surrogacy in public venues and posting on social media. The guiding principle is, it’s okay to post or talk about oneself, but one party should not say anything that would identify the other party or the details of the contract without the other party’s consent.

Breach of Contract

The surrogacy agreement will state how any breach of contract situations should be handled and what remedy or remedies may apply in the event of a breach. With good planning and preparation as well as thorough screening and properly educating the parties on the arrangement they are entering into together, breach of contract should be unlikely.

5. The services of an experienced surrogacy will help protect your family and give you peace of mind.

We live in a knowledge era when volumes of information are available at our fingertips. In our do-it-yourself society, intended parents may be tempted to save time and cut costs by engaging in cut-rate legal advice or cobbling together an agreement from online templates.

But while thousands of people successfully create families using surrogacy or other types of assisted reproduction every year, navigating the complex, months- or years-long process without competent legal advice is a minefield.

Nothing is more important than the safety and security of your family. Contact the IFLG office today to learn more about how our team of experienced Los Angeles and New York surrogacy lawyers can help you, every step of the way.

Richard Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn is founder and principal of International Fertility Law Group, one of the world’s largest and best-known law firms focused exclusively on assisted reproductive technology, or ART, including in vitro fertilization (IVF), surrogacy, sperm donation or egg donation. Rich is co-author of the book “Developing A Successful Assisted Reproduction Technology Law Practice,” American Bar Association Publishing, 2017.

Peiya Wang
Paralegal (律师助理)

Peiya Wang joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2015, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases and provides translation services for many of IFLG’s international clients. Peiya moved to the United States in 2012 to attend Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, receiving a Master of Science degree in Global Studies and International Affairs in 2014. Peiya moved to Los Angeles in 2015, received her paralegal certification from UCLA Extension, and obtained her second Master of Science degree in Legal Studies from Loyola Law School. Peiya relocated back to her hometown, Beijing, China in 2019 and works from IFLG’s Beijing office. When away from the office, Peiya is a dragon boat paddler and a ballroom dancer, where she favors Rumbas and Cha-chas. She is fluent in Mandarin and English.

Luis Sosa

Luis R. Sosa joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2016, where he enjoys pursuing his passion for family and reproductive law. While working toward his bachelor’s degree at Florida International University which he received in 2013, Luis worked as a paralegal and legal assistant for family law litigation firms in Miami and Washington, D.C. As a paralegal and case manager for IFLG, Luis, who is bilingual in English and Spanish, manages surrogacy, egg donation and other reproductive law cases. Luis has worked for IFLG in both Los Angeles as well as San Francisco, and is currently based in Dallas, Texas. In addition to spending time with husband Randy and dog Marty, Luis enjoys being outdoors and appreciating the arts.

Toni Hughes

After receiving her B.S. in Business Management, Toni joined IFLG to pursue her dream of working in the legal field. As a Paralegal with over 10 years of experience in the assisted reproduction technology field, Toni is our Managing Paralegal, responsible for training and managing our paralegal staff. From drafting legal documents to assisting our clients with post-birth matters, Toni embraces the challenge of learning something new in this field each day. Besides spending time with her son, Jordan, Toni enjoys exploring new things, cooking, spending time with family and friends, and serving as a Youth Advisor for “Next Generation.”


Kim has over 30 years of experience in the legal field and has worked exclusively in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 1999. Kim is a senior case manager responsible for managing parental establishment cases and interacting with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorneys across the country. With three children of her own, Kim understands the importance of family and finds working in this area of law a rewarding experience.

Rich Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn combined his personal passion as a father of twin boys born via assisted reproductive technology (ART) with more than 20 years of experience in business and technology law to build International Fertility Law Group. Today IFLG is one of the most successful and best-known law firms in the world focused exclusively on fertility law, helping thousands of intended parents through empathetic listening, compassionate guidance, and unmatched legal expertise. As an advocate for reproductive freedom, Rich also contributes his knowledge and time to improving the understanding and practice of ART law, most recently as a founder of and speaker at the first Cambridge University International Surrogacy Symposium held in June 2019, as immediate past chair of the American Bar Association ART Committee, and as a popular presenter to law schools, faculty and advocacy organizations all over the world.

Elizabeth Tamayo

Elizabeth received her Bachelors of Science degree in Criminal Justice from California State University of Los Angeles. Shortly after graduating, she continued her education at the University of California, Los Angeles where she obtained her Paralegal certificate. Elizabeth is fluent in Spanish and has been in the legal field since 2009. She is excited to be a part of the IFLG Team helping families realize their dreams.

Sunny Chien

Sunny joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2017, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s international clients. She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy from California State University of Los Angeles, where she graduated cum laude. Sunny is bilingual in English and Mandarin and has extensive experience as a legal assistant and paralegal at Los Angeles-area law firms. She is excited to be part of the IFLG team. In her spare time, Sunny enjoys spending time with her family and their dog, going to the beach, cooking, and being outdoors.

Los Angeles

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Los Angeles, CA 90036

Phone:  +1 323 331 9343

Email:  info@iflg.net

Website:  www.iflg.net

New York

501 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1900

New York, NY 10017

Phone:  +1 844 400 2016

Email:  info@iflg.net

Website:  www.iflg.net

Molly O'Brien

Fertility law attorney Molly O’Brien began working in the field of assisted reproduction technology (ART) in 2005, at an egg donation agency and a surrogacy agency where she became familiar with all aspects of in-vitro fertilization, egg donation and the financial aspects of surrogacy. Since becoming an attorney in 2011, Molly has drafted and negotiated surrogacy, egg donation, sperm donation embryo donation agreements for hundreds of her clients all over the world.

Phoebe Sadler

Fertility law attorney Phoebe Sadler has a background in family law and has been practicing exclusively in the area of assisted reproduction technology (ART) law since 2018.

Rubina Aslanyan

Rubina has an extensive background in the legal field as a paralegal in Family Law and has worked in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 2012. Her area of focus is in managing and assisting clients with surrogacy, egg donation, and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s domestic and international clients. During her spare time, Rubina enjoys spending time with her family and dog Bella, traveling and cooking.

Alexander Espinoza
Legal Assistant

Alexander joined IFLG as a legal assistant in 2019, where he manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases. Alex is bilingual in English and Spanish and has been in the legal field for 23 years. Alex is excited to join the IFLG team and pursuing his will to help others in the reproductive law process. In his spare time he loves spending time with his family and friends, being outdoors, road trips, loves music and dancing.

Cara Stecker
Senior Paralegal

After receiving her paralegal certificate in 2005, Cara began working in assisted reproductive law. During the fifteen years Cara has worked in this field, she has gained a wide range of experience and knowledge that she uses to help better assist clients and those involved in the assisted reproductive journey. Cara’s primary roles involve managing parental establishment matters and coordination with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorney network, drafting contracts and parental establishment court documents and providing support to other team members. Cara finds great joy in being a small part of a team of caring people who help others achieve their dream of having a family. In her spare time, Cara enjoys spending time with her husband and three children, watching her children play the sports they love, and she enjoys, running, cycling and exploring the outdoors in the sun.

Stephanie Kimble

Stephanie received her BS in History and Political Thought from Concordia University Irvine in 2015 and her Paralegal Certificate from University of San Diego later that same year. She has been working as a Paralegal since 2016 in Family and Reproductive Law. She is excited to be part of International Fertility Law Group working on managing Surrogacy, Egg donation and Parental Establishment Cases.

Trish Pittman
Assistant Financial Coordinator

With more than 20 years of experience in the field of accounting, Trish joined the IFLG team in 2019 as Assistant Financial Coordinator. Her client-facing focus at IFLG is to assist with all client trust accounting. Trish is the mother of two daughters and enjoys spending time teaching and learning new things from them. In her free time, she loves long walks in the park and reading suspense and mystery novels.

Katie Deaquino
Senior Paralegal

Katie is a Senior Paralegal with IFLG and has dedicated over sixteen years to the areas of surrogacy and reproductive law. She received her Paralegal Certificate from Coastline Community College and has worked with some of the top law firms in the assisted reproduction community. Katie is also a commissioned Notary Public. With IFLG, Katie manages Surrogacy, Egg Donation, and Parental Establishment cases and provides support to other IFLG team members. Katie truly enjoys helping others build their families through assisted reproduction and is thankful she has had the rewarding experience of assisting IFLG clients. Katie often spends her free time with her Husband, four young children and her bulldog “Bella”.

Elsa Jimenez
Legal Assistant

Elsa joined IFLG as a Legal Assistant in 2019, bringing more than 35 years of experience working in the legal profession (concentrating in tort and litigation matters). At IFLG she assists surrogates with their surrogacy and parental matters. The oldest of five siblings, born and raised in East Los Angeles to Mexican immigrant parents, Elsa loves “seeing the beauty of families forming” through assisted reproductive technology. She and her husband Carlos have four children and one grandson. Elsa enjoys jazz and ’80s music, being outdoors in nature, collecting teacups and tea pots, and spending time with her close-knit family.