Rich Vaughn IFLG: Arizona Embryo Custody Law

New Embryo Custody Law Strips Arizonans of Reproductive Rights

Arizona legislators just passed, and GOP Governor Doug Ducey signed into law, SB 1397, an onerous new law with potentially disastrous impacts on the lives of intended parents; on the fields of family, divorce and ART law; and on the cause of reproductive freedom in general.

Under the measure, in divorce cases in which there are cryopreserved embryos—created by the couple in better times— “the Court shall” “award the in vitro human embryos to the spouse who intends to allow the in vitro human embryos to develop to birth.” Even if a divorcing couple has a legal agreement governing how unused embryos would be handled in the event of separation or divorce—a requirement at most fertility clinics—“the court shall award the in vitro human embryos as prescribed.” In other words, the new law effectively renders any existing disposition agreement null and void. It is a shocking, and possibly unconstitutional, infringement on a person’s right NOT to procreate.

Presented by its proponents as a simple clarification of divorce statutes to address the increasingly common scenario of cryopreserved embryos as marital property, the new law is in fact an end-around aimed at establishing legislatively the “personhood” of unborn embryos, a plank in a long-running anti-choice movement platform.

Disputes over the disposition of unused embryos have become increasingly common as use of assisted reproductive technology has increased and success rates have climbed. In vitro fertilization often produces multiple viable embryos; however, best practices limit the number of embryos implanted in one cycle. In the early years of IVF, it was common to create as many embryos as possible and then implant multiple embryos in order to improve the chances of a successful pregnancy.

As the technology advanced fertility experts got better at producing viable embryos with in vitro fertilization and at the same time, pregnancy success rates climbed. Eventually, medical providers established a standard of limiting the number of embryos implanted at one time to one or two. . As a result, intended parents, even after one or more successful births, might be left with a handful of potentially viable embryos… or 20. Now, imagine you are divorced and faced with the prospect of becoming a biological parent against your will, not just once but, potentially, many times.

While it absolves the unwilling parent of financial responsibility, the new Arizona law brushes off such concerns of coerced parentage with a legal remedy that does nothing to mitigate the ghoulish prospect of having multiple biological children born into a family of which you are not a part.

In the language of the bill, “the spouse that is not awarded the in vitro human embryos has no parental responsibilities and no right, obligation or interest with respect to any child resulting from the disputed in vitro human embryos” unless he or she “consents in writing to be a parent.” Further, “if the spouse who is not awarded [the embryos] does not consent to being a parent… any resulting child from the disputed in vitro human embryos is not a child of the spouse and has no right, obligation or interest with respect to the spouse.”

In cases in which both divorcing spouses intend to allow the preserved embryos to “develop to birth,” but only one spouse is genetically related to the embryos, the law requires the court to award custody to the genetically related parent.

The law further requires a spouse who is genetically related to the embryos, but who does not consent to be a parent, to provide the custodial spouse with “detailed written nonidentifying information that includes the health and genetic history of the spouse and the spouse’s family”— helpful for the child, yet it is another onerous, open-ended burden to place on someone who has already been stripped of his or her right not to become a parent. 

Impact of Torres v Terrell

The new law gained traction in Arizona in the wake of an infamous recent court case in which an Arizona cancer patient, Ruby Torres, petitioned to use cryopreserved embryos against the wishes of her ex-husband. In 2014, the couple, then engaged, created seven embryos via IVF—both contributing gametes—prior to Torres’ treatment for breast cancer. The couple signed a medical agreement at the time of treatment covering how any remaining embryos would be handled in the event of their separation.

They subsequently married but later divorced. Torres sued for possession of the embryos, claiming they represented her only opportunity to have biologically related children. But her ex-husband objected, citing his unwillingness to be financially responsible for resulting offspring. An Arizona family court judge ruled in the ex-husband’s favor, based on the medical agreement signed by both intended parents, and ordered that the embryos be donated to a fertility bank or another couple. The case received extensive media coverage and became a cause célèbre for anti-choice organizations, including the powerful Center for Arizona Policy, an offshoot of the right-wing Family Research Council, and conservative politicians.

SB 1393 sponsor State Senator Nancy Barto (R-Phoenix), who has carried a number of anti-choice bills, acknowledged the influence of the Torres case. According to the Arizona Daily Sun, “Barto said while the outcome of SB 1393 can't legally affect the outcome of that case, she is hoping that the courts see the measure as the intent of the Legislature. And, if nothing else, she said, it will provide direction to judges on how to handle future incidents.” The law may impact the outcome of Torres’ future appeals, which are ongoing.

Under this new law, any Arizonans who have frozen stored embryos now live with the reality that, should they end up in divorce court, they may be forced to become biological parents against their will. In effect, their reproductive rights are subject to the wishes of their ex, for better or worse.

All other considerations aside, the enormous implications of government-mandated procreation should make intended parents consider their decisions about cryopreservation even more carefully.

ART professional and consumer advocacy groups opposed the Arizona bill, depicting the potential nightmare scenarios ensuing from the new law: Ex-husbands and -wives faced with the prospect of seeing multiple genetically related children grow up in another family. Domestic abusers awarded custody of embryos genetically related to their victims. The new law would strip courts of all discretion, requiring them to adhere to guidelines with no consideration of a custodial spouse’s fitness as parent. In its letter to Governor Ducey, RESOLVE: The Nationality Infertility Association wrote, “These unhappy scenarios are the end product when the government tries to impose an iron-clad rule on a situation that is complex and deeply personal. Courts can and have analyzed frozen embryo disputes with the delicacy they require. The rule proposed in SB 1393 will cause unnecessary difficulties for people with infertility, for families, and for children.”

To sum up, SB 1393 is a terrible law, a textbook case of government oppression and a frontal attack on reproductive freedom and personal choice. If we were to remove the use of assisted reproduction from this scenario, it would be equivalent to forcing a woman to bear a child for her ex-husband against her will, simply because her ex-husband expressed his intent to have a child with her. Ridiculous!

The late Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. once said, “The arc of the moral universe is long, but it bends toward justice”—NOT toward the loss of civil liberties and forced procreation represented by this destructive legislation. I predict the law will ultimately be overturned—if Arizona lawmakers cannot see the light, the courts will. Until then, Arizona’s new embryo custody law will be a dark, dark blight on this country’s greatness—and a wake-up call to remain vigilant against other constitutional impingements, in Arizona or in other states.


Richard Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn is founder and principal of International Fertility Law Group, one of the world’s largest and best-known law firms focused exclusively on assisted reproductive technology, or ART, including in vitro fertilization (IVF), surrogacy, sperm donation or egg donation. Rich is co-author of the book “Developing A Successful Assisted Reproduction Technology Law Practice,” American Bar Association Publishing, 2017.

Peiya Wang
Paralegal (律师助理)

Peiya Wang joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2015, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases and provides translation services for many of IFLG’s international clients. Peiya moved to the United States in 2012 to attend Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, receiving a Master of Science degree in Global Studies and International Affairs in 2014. Peiya moved to Los Angeles in 2015, received her paralegal certification from UCLA Extension, and obtained her second Master of Science degree in Legal Studies from Loyola Law School. Peiya relocated back to her hometown, Beijing, China in 2019 and works from IFLG’s Beijing office. When away from the office, Peiya is a dragon boat paddler and a ballroom dancer, where she favors Rumbas and Cha-chas. She is fluent in Mandarin and English.

Luis Sosa

Luis R. Sosa joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2016, where he enjoys pursuing his passion for family and reproductive law. While working toward his bachelor’s degree at Florida International University which he received in 2013, Luis worked as a paralegal and legal assistant for family law litigation firms in Miami and Washington, D.C. As a paralegal and case manager for IFLG, Luis, who is bilingual in English and Spanish, manages surrogacy, egg donation and other reproductive law cases. Luis has worked for IFLG in both Los Angeles as well as San Francisco, and is currently based in Dallas, Texas. In addition to spending time with husband Randy and dog Marty, Luis enjoys being outdoors and appreciating the arts.

Toni Hughes

After receiving her B.S. in Business Management, Toni joined IFLG to pursue her dream of working in the legal field. As a Paralegal with over 10 years of experience in the assisted reproduction technology field, Toni is our Managing Paralegal, responsible for training and managing our paralegal staff. From drafting legal documents to assisting our clients with post-birth matters, Toni embraces the challenge of learning something new in this field each day. Besides spending time with her son, Jordan, Toni enjoys exploring new things, cooking, spending time with family and friends, and serving as a Youth Advisor for “Next Generation.”


Kim has over 30 years of experience in the legal field and has worked exclusively in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 1999. Kim is a senior case manager responsible for managing parental establishment cases and interacting with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorneys across the country. With three children of her own, Kim understands the importance of family and finds working in this area of law a rewarding experience.

Rich Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn combined his personal passion as a father of twin boys born via assisted reproductive technology (ART) with more than 20 years of experience in business and technology law to build International Fertility Law Group. Today IFLG is one of the most successful and best-known law firms in the world focused exclusively on fertility law, helping thousands of intended parents through empathetic listening, compassionate guidance, and unmatched legal expertise. As an advocate for reproductive freedom, Rich also contributes his knowledge and time to improving the understanding and practice of ART law, most recently as a founder of and speaker at the first Cambridge University International Surrogacy Symposium held in June 2019, as immediate past chair of the American Bar Association ART Committee, and as a popular presenter to law schools, faculty and advocacy organizations all over the world.

Elizabeth Tamayo

Elizabeth received her Bachelors of Science degree in Criminal Justice from California State University of Los Angeles. Shortly after graduating, she continued her education at the University of California, Los Angeles where she obtained her Paralegal certificate. Elizabeth is fluent in Spanish and has been in the legal field since 2009. She is excited to be a part of the IFLG Team helping families realize their dreams.

Sunny Chien

Sunny joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2017, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s international clients. She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy from California State University of Los Angeles, where she graduated cum laude. Sunny is bilingual in English and Mandarin and has extensive experience as a legal assistant and paralegal at Los Angeles-area law firms. She is excited to be part of the IFLG team. In her spare time, Sunny enjoys spending time with her family and their dog, going to the beach, cooking, and being outdoors.

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Molly O'Brien

Fertility law attorney Molly O’Brien began working in the field of assisted reproduction technology (ART) in 2005, at an egg donation agency and a surrogacy agency where she became familiar with all aspects of in-vitro fertilization, egg donation and the financial aspects of surrogacy. Since becoming an attorney in 2011, Molly has drafted and negotiated surrogacy, egg donation, sperm donation embryo donation agreements for hundreds of her clients all over the world.

Phoebe Sadler

Fertility law attorney Phoebe Sadler has a background in family law and has been practicing exclusively in the area of assisted reproduction technology (ART) law since 2018.

Rubina Aslanyan

Rubina has an extensive background in the legal field as a paralegal in Family Law and has worked in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 2012. Her area of focus is in managing and assisting clients with surrogacy, egg donation, and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s domestic and international clients. During her spare time, Rubina enjoys spending time with her family and dog Bella, traveling and cooking.

Alexander Espinoza
Legal Assistant

Alexander joined IFLG as a legal assistant in 2019, where he manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases. Alex is bilingual in English and Spanish and has been in the legal field for 23 years. Alex is excited to join the IFLG team and pursuing his will to help others in the reproductive law process. In his spare time he loves spending time with his family and friends, being outdoors, road trips, loves music and dancing.

Cara Stecker
Senior Paralegal

After receiving her paralegal certificate in 2005, Cara began working in assisted reproductive law. During the fifteen years Cara has worked in this field, she has gained a wide range of experience and knowledge that she uses to help better assist clients and those involved in the assisted reproductive journey. Cara’s primary roles involve managing parental establishment matters and coordination with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorney network, drafting contracts and parental establishment court documents and providing support to other team members. Cara finds great joy in being a small part of a team of caring people who help others achieve their dream of having a family. In her spare time, Cara enjoys spending time with her husband and three children, watching her children play the sports they love, and she enjoys, running, cycling and exploring the outdoors in the sun.

Stephanie Kimble

Stephanie received her BS in History and Political Thought from Concordia University Irvine in 2015 and her Paralegal Certificate from University of San Diego later that same year. She has been working as a Paralegal since 2016 in Family and Reproductive Law. She is excited to be part of International Fertility Law Group working on managing Surrogacy, Egg donation and Parental Establishment Cases.

Trish Pittman
Assistant Financial Coordinator

With more than 20 years of experience in the field of accounting, Trish joined the IFLG team in 2019 as Assistant Financial Coordinator. Her client-facing focus at IFLG is to assist with all client trust accounting. Trish is the mother of two daughters and enjoys spending time teaching and learning new things from them. In her free time, she loves long walks in the park and reading suspense and mystery novels.

Katie Deaquino
Senior Paralegal

Katie is a Senior Paralegal with IFLG and has dedicated over sixteen years to the areas of surrogacy and reproductive law. She received her Paralegal Certificate from Coastline Community College and has worked with some of the top law firms in the assisted reproduction community. Katie is also a commissioned Notary Public. With IFLG, Katie manages Surrogacy, Egg Donation, and Parental Establishment cases and provides support to other IFLG team members. Katie truly enjoys helping others build their families through assisted reproduction and is thankful she has had the rewarding experience of assisting IFLG clients. Katie often spends her free time with her Husband, four young children and her bulldog “Bella”.

Elsa Jimenez
Legal Assistant

Elsa joined IFLG as a Legal Assistant in 2019, bringing more than 35 years of experience working in the legal profession (concentrating in tort and litigation matters). At IFLG she assists surrogates with their surrogacy and parental matters. The oldest of five siblings, born and raised in East Los Angeles to Mexican immigrant parents, Elsa loves “seeing the beauty of families forming” through assisted reproductive technology. She and her husband Carlos have four children and one grandson. Elsa enjoys jazz and ’80s music, being outdoors in nature, collecting teacups and tea pots, and spending time with her close-knit family.