Barrett Confirmation Could Pose Threat to In Vitro Fertilization

While advocates for reproductive freedom brace for an assault on abortion rights with the potential confirmation of Amy Coney Barrett to the U.S. Supreme Court, fertility professionals fear that access to common infertility treatment such as in vitro fertilization, or IVF, might also be in jeopardy.

As the Senate hearing on the conservative judge’s nomination to the U.S. Supreme Court winds down to its preordained conclusion, lawmakers, fertility professionals and consumer advocates warn that Barrett’s confirmation could mean not only the reversal of Roe v. Wade but the criminalization of in vitro fertilization (IVF).

This is not an exaggeration. Although she has refused to provide any substantive answer about her stance on a wide variety of issues during the confirmation hearings, her record on the bench and her personal feelings are very, very and startlingly clear. As a potential justice on the U.S. Supreme Court, Amy Coney Barrett is an unquestionable danger to IVF.

Fertility Experts Defy 72-Year Tradition to Condemn Barrett Confirmation

The editors of Fertility and Sterility, the American Society for Reproductive Medicine’s flagship international journal for medical professionals, agree. On October 12, they broke with 72 years of tradition of not opining on a SCOTUS nomination, calling on senators to reject Barrett's nomination.

"The seating of Amy Coney Barrett to the Supreme Court threatens those who seek to build a family through in-vitro fertilization. Legislation that restricts doctors from standard treatments today that carefully manage an egg with a sperm inside would render those procedures impossible to perform. Frighteningly, any procedure that might risk the embryo’s viability would put physicians at risk for criminal violation."

The concern of the three authors, all highly regarded fertility physicians, is based on Barrett’s legal opinions as well as her public affiliation with organizations that promote the view that life begins at fertilization.

In particular, Barrett and her husband signed onto a full-page anti-abortion advertisement in her hometown newspaper, the South Bend Tribune, sponsored by St. Joseph County Right to Life, also known as Right to Life Michiana.

As The Guardian reports:

“The first page of the ad, which is signed by Barrett and her husband, Jesse, states that life begins at ‘fertilization.’ The ad, which the organization publishes every year to mark the anniversary of Roe v Wade, was signed by Barrett while she was working as a law professor at Notre Dame."

Barrett also was a member of the University of Notre Dame’s “Faculty for Life” group, the report continues, and in 2015 signed a letter to Catholic bishops affirming the  “value of human life from conception to natural death.” She also joined in the dissent against a decision to overturn an anti-abortion law signed by then Indiana Governor Mike Pence that would have mandated fetal remains to be buried or cremated, The Guardian reports.

‘Personhood’ Laws Stake Out New Front in Anti-Abortion Movement

The concept that life begins at conception has implications far beyond merely banning abortions. As the Fertility and Sterility editorial continues:

"There have been numerous attempts over the years to pass legislation defining human life as the immediate union of sperm and egg, while the majority of these fertilizations in nature are lost, leading to such odd legal movements as attempts to mandate funerals for miscarriages. One such proposal was HR 586, “The Sanctity of Human Life Act,” commonly referred to as a Personhood bill. These bills seek to supplant the scientific concept of embryonic viability with personal beliefs instead, ascribing to a cell “all the legal and constitutional attributes and privileges of personhood” that most likely in nature will not lead to live birth. [Barrett’s] signing of a full-page newspaper advertisement in 2006 supporting the basis of this view demonstrates clearly that she is fully part of this fringe, antiscience stance."

In use since the late 1970s, IVF is an effective multi-step fertility treatment in which an egg is fertilized with sperm outside of the body to create an embryo. The embryo can be implanted in the uterus of the biological mother or a surrogate, depending on the circumstances, who carries the embryo to term. Without a successful implantation, the embryo does not grow into a fetus.

Even in natural procreation, many embryos are created but do not successfully implant in the uterus. In those cases, the existence of the embryo is never known to the mother.

Yet, if every embryo were deemed to be a legal person, even an unknowing expectant mother would be committing a crime if the embryo did not survive. Surely that is a ludicrous outcome—but that would be the effect of granting legal “personhood” status for every embryo, as Barrett, based on her public positions, advocates.

IVF Process Results in Unused Embryos


The IVF process typically produces multiple embryos, not all of which are viable. The IVF physician assesses and chooses the strongest, most viable embryos for implantation.

In the early days of IVF, when technology was less reliable, doctors typically recommended implantation of two or more embryos, as a way of increasing the odds that one embryo would successfully implant. Of course, this resulted in many multiple pregnancies, leaving parents and/or surrogate with the decision of whether to reduce the number of embryos or assume the significant risk of carrying multiples to term.

Since then, with perfection of the technology, IVF best practice has evolved to implantation of a single embryo, which reduces risk to mother or surrogate and increases the likelihood of a healthy pregnancy and birth.

But while technological advances have reduced the number of embryos implanted, the IVF process still produces multiple embryos—in many cases far outnumbering the number of children the intended parents or parent want to bring into the world.

Often excess embryos are cryopreserved and stored for a potential future addition to the family, or parents may decide to have them donated to an agency for adoption, donated for medical research, or destroyed.

At the time of the IVF treatment, intended parents are required to sign a medical consent form establishing how any excess embryos will be used or disposed of, including the disposition of embryos in the event parents separate, divorce or die.

 Embryo Personhood Could Make IVF Illegal


Decades of increasingly effective IVF treatments have resulted in millions of frozen embryos stored in cryopreservation facilities all over the United States. In fact, abandoned embryos—frozen embryos whose owners have stopped paying storage fees—has become a huge problem. As we wrote in 2017, “Today there are an estimated 600,000 to 4 million frozen embryos stored in the United States that are abandoned or unclaimed, representing an enormous burden for clinics and storage facilities.”

But if every embryo produced through IVF is a person from the moment the egg is fertilized, what are the ramifications for people seeking infertility treatment or for single or LGBTQ people who want to use IVF to create families of their own?

As the Fertility and Sterility physicians’ letter continues, any legislation that establishes the “personhood” of unborn and frozen embryos threatens the legality of the IVF process. Discarding excess embryos or those with genetic disorders would be illegal.

“Physicians would be forced to transfer all embryos, resulting in greater health risk to women and lower pregnancy rates as has been repeatedly demonstrated in countries that do not impose these restrictions. Scientific advances in the field would come to an immediate and devastating halt without the ability to continue reproductive research. In the more than 40 years since the first live birth from in-vitro fertilization, Louise Brown, progress in the field has been astounding. 1.5% of all babies today are born as a result of in-vitro fertilization. The long-term human, social, and economic benefit to our country from these families granted children through in-vitro fertilization is significant.”

One immediate consequence of “personhood” laws would be to raise the cost of IVF treatment beyond the range of most ordinary individuals. Practically speaking, an IVF physician would be forced to severely limit the number of eggs fertilized and thus the number of embryos produced. Handling and processing of the delicate embryos would be fraught with peril. Instead of maximizing the number of viable embryos to increase chances of success, physicians would be forced to limit the number of embryos available, potentially forcing intended parents to start all over again with the egg harvesting and fertilization process.

For many intended parents, IVF is not successful on the first try. In 2008, my husband, Tommy, and I became dads to twin boys through egg donation, IVF and surrogacy. Our experience was not unusual. As I wrote about our experience:

“An egg donor typically produces between five and 35 eggs or more per cycle. In the case of Tommy and me, our first cycle with the egg donor yielded 13 eggs, 11 of which were successfully fertilized. Although 13 eggs was somewhat of a low yield, we were excited to have 11 fertilized eggs…. [W]e ended up with three viable embryos, all day 5 blastocysts. Although that high rate of attrition was disappointing, it is not uncommon with in vitro fertilization.

“We did not get pregnant, and we started the process all over again.

“When a cycle doesn’t take, it can take 30 to 45 days, or more, before you can try again. On the second round, we got 17 viable eggs, of which 13 were fertilized. But by the day of the implantation, there were only four viable embryos.”

Happily, the pregnancy took on the second try, and we were blessed with healthy twins. I cannot imagine how much more difficult and stressful our journey to parenthood would have been had our physician been forced to treat each embryo as a person.

Arizona Embryo Custody Law Mandates Forced Reproduction

In 2018, as we reported then, Arizona legislators passed a precedent-slamming law that requires courts in divorce cases to award custody of any existing embryos to “the spouse who intends to allow the in vitro human embryos to develop to birth.”

The law, initiated by the ultra-conservative Center for Arizona Policy, is a back-door run at a right-to-life and personhood bill. While it is not as blatant as the personhood bills advanced in other states, it sets terrible legal precedent, disregarding the couple’s intentions at the time the embryos were created and rendering their embryo distribution agreement unenforceable. If assisted reproduction were not involved, it would be tantamount to the court’s second-guessing a couple’s intentions in the bedroom at the time they had coitus.

Although the Arizona law has yet to be tested before the Supreme Court, it is but one of a number of cases being queued up for challenges. In the case of the Arizona law, “the spouse that is not awarded the in vitro human embryos has no parental responsibilities and no right, obligation or interest with respect to any child resulting from the disputed in vitro human embryos” unless he or she “consents in writing to be a parent.” Further, “if the spouse who is not awarded [the embryos] does not consent to being a parent… any resulting child from the disputed in vitro human embryos is not a child of the spouse and has no right, obligation or interest with respect to the spouse.”

Although the law absolves non-consenting parents of financial and legal responsibility, it still in effect forces them to procreate against their will—surely grounds for a constitutional challenge.

Barrett’s Public Record Reveals Hostility to Reproductive Freedom

Barrett’s almost certain confirmation to the Supreme Court makes the outcome of that challenge less certain.

The ultimate outcome of the Barrett hearing before a Republican-controlled Senate has never been in question. Long before Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg was laid to rest, Republican Senators and President Donald Trump had already made it clear that they would act to fill her seat quickly. Barrett’s confirmation to hold Ginsburg’s seat would establish a 6-3 conservative majority on the Court.

During the course of the hearing, Barrett has steadfastly refused to say how she would rule on the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision establishing a woman’s right to an abortion under the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, or on other cases of reproductive choice.

But as VP candidate Senator Kamala Harris, a member of the Senate Judiciary Committee, pointed out on day 2 of questioning, Barrett has already expressed her opinions on those topics publicly, in multiple position papers, in paid public advertisements opposing a woman’s right to choose, and in opinions from the 7th U.S. Circuit appellate bench.

On the hearing’s second day, Barrett, under questioning by Senator Amy Klobuchar, admitted that she does not consider Roe to be a “super-precedent”—in effect signaling that she would be receptive to reconsidering the case.

“I would suggest that we not pretend that we don’t know how this nominee views a women’s right to choose or make her own decisions,” Harris said during her own questioning.

As I wrote recently, Supreme Court justices often do not rule in the ways they are expected to rule by the politicians who nominate and confirm them. Their lifetime appointments protect them from most political pressure. But in the public record, Amy Coney Barrett leaves little doubt that both her personal and legal views are hostile to reproductive freedom and a woman’s right to choose. Like Harris, I recommend that we take Barrett at face value and be prepared for an onslaught of challenges to some of the most established legal protections we now enjoy.

Tell Your Senator to Protect Americans’ Right to Fertility Treatment

By all indications, the Republican-controlled Senate is intent on confirming Barrett. Committee Chair Lindsay Graham has scheduled the committee’s vote for Thursday, October 22, and plans to take the nomination to the full Senate on October 23. Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell says he has the votes to confirm Barrett, and the full Senate is expected to vote early in the week of October 26.

While the outcome of this confirmation process seems pre-ordained, the potential fallout for infertile couples and for LGBTQ or single intended parents would be catastrophic, and silence is not an option. Please reach out to your Senators and share your concerns about this threat to leading infertility treatments and to our reproductive rights.

For contact information for your Senator, visit https://www.senate.gov/senators/How_to_correspond_senators.htm and click on the Find Your Senators button at top left. Or call the U.S. Capitol Switchboard at 202-224-3121 and ask to be connected to your Senator’s office.

The fertility lawyers and paralegals at IFLG are active both within the legal profession and in advocacy organizations in fighting for equal reproductive rights for all individuals. We are happy to answer your questions about assisted reproduction law and how to ensure your family is legally protected.

Richard Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn is founder and principal of International Fertility Law Group, one of the world’s largest and best-known law firms focused exclusively on assisted reproductive technology, or ART, including in vitro fertilization (IVF), surrogacy, sperm donation or egg donation. Rich is co-author of the book “Developing A Successful Assisted Reproduction Technology Law Practice,” American Bar Association Publishing, 2017.

Peiya Wang
Paralegal (律师助理)

Peiya Wang joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2015, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases and provides translation services for many of IFLG’s international clients. Peiya moved to the United States in 2012 to attend Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, receiving a Master of Science degree in Global Studies and International Affairs in 2014. Peiya moved to Los Angeles in 2015, received her paralegal certification from UCLA Extension, and obtained her second Master of Science degree in Legal Studies from Loyola Law School. Peiya relocated back to her hometown, Beijing, China in 2019 and works from IFLG’s Beijing office. When away from the office, Peiya is a dragon boat paddler and a ballroom dancer, where she favors Rumbas and Cha-chas. She is fluent in Mandarin and English.

Luis Sosa

Luis R. Sosa joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2016, where he enjoys pursuing his passion for family and reproductive law. While working toward his bachelor’s degree at Florida International University which he received in 2013, Luis worked as a paralegal and legal assistant for family law litigation firms in Miami and Washington, D.C. As a paralegal and case manager for IFLG, Luis, who is bilingual in English and Spanish, manages surrogacy, egg donation and other reproductive law cases. Luis has worked for IFLG in both Los Angeles as well as San Francisco, and is currently based in Dallas, Texas. In addition to spending time with husband Randy and dog Marty, Luis enjoys being outdoors and appreciating the arts.

Toni Hughes

After receiving her B.S. in Business Management, Toni joined IFLG to pursue her dream of working in the legal field. As a Paralegal with over 10 years of experience in the assisted reproduction technology field, Toni is our Managing Paralegal, responsible for training and managing our paralegal staff. From drafting legal documents to assisting our clients with post-birth matters, Toni embraces the challenge of learning something new in this field each day. Besides spending time with her son, Jordan, Toni enjoys exploring new things, cooking, spending time with family and friends, and serving as a Youth Advisor for “Next Generation.”


Kim has over 30 years of experience in the legal field and has worked exclusively in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 1999. Kim is a senior case manager responsible for managing parental establishment cases and interacting with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorneys across the country. With three children of her own, Kim understands the importance of family and finds working in this area of law a rewarding experience.

Rich Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn combined his personal passion as a father of twin boys born via assisted reproductive technology (ART) with more than 20 years of experience in business and technology law to build International Fertility Law Group. Today IFLG is one of the most successful and best-known law firms in the world focused exclusively on fertility law, helping thousands of intended parents through empathetic listening, compassionate guidance, and unmatched legal expertise. As an advocate for reproductive freedom, Rich also contributes his knowledge and time to improving the understanding and practice of ART law, most recently as a founder of and speaker at the first Cambridge University International Surrogacy Symposium held in June 2019, as immediate past chair of the American Bar Association ART Committee, and as a popular presenter to law schools, faculty and advocacy organizations all over the world.

Elizabeth Tamayo

Elizabeth received her Bachelors of Science degree in Criminal Justice from California State University of Los Angeles. Shortly after graduating, she continued her education at the University of California, Los Angeles where she obtained her Paralegal certificate. Elizabeth is fluent in Spanish and has been in the legal field since 2009. She is excited to be a part of the IFLG Team helping families realize their dreams.

Sunny Chien

Sunny joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2017, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s international clients. She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy from California State University of Los Angeles, where she graduated cum laude. Sunny is bilingual in English and Mandarin and has extensive experience as a legal assistant and paralegal at Los Angeles-area law firms. She is excited to be part of the IFLG team. In her spare time, Sunny enjoys spending time with her family and their dog, going to the beach, cooking, and being outdoors.

Los Angeles

5757 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 645

Los Angeles, CA 90036

Phone:  +1 323 331 9343

Email:  info@iflg.net

Website:  www.iflg.net

New York

501 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1900

New York, NY 10017

Phone:  +1 844 400 2016

Email:  info@iflg.net

Website:  www.iflg.net

Molly O'Brien

Fertility law attorney Molly O’Brien began working in the field of assisted reproduction technology (ART) in 2005, at an egg donation agency and a surrogacy agency where she became familiar with all aspects of in-vitro fertilization, egg donation and the financial aspects of surrogacy. Since becoming an attorney in 2011, Molly has drafted and negotiated surrogacy, egg donation, sperm donation embryo donation agreements for hundreds of her clients all over the world.

Phoebe Sadler

Fertility law attorney Phoebe Sadler has a background in family law and has been practicing exclusively in the area of assisted reproduction technology (ART) law since 2018.

Rubina Aslanyan

Rubina has an extensive background in the legal field as a paralegal in Family Law and has worked in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 2012. Her area of focus is in managing and assisting clients with surrogacy, egg donation, and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s domestic and international clients. During her spare time, Rubina enjoys spending time with her family and dog Bella, traveling and cooking.

Alexander Espinoza
Legal Assistant

Alexander joined IFLG as a legal assistant in 2019, where he manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases. Alex is bilingual in English and Spanish and has been in the legal field for 23 years. Alex is excited to join the IFLG team and pursuing his will to help others in the reproductive law process. In his spare time he loves spending time with his family and friends, being outdoors, road trips, loves music and dancing.

Cara Stecker
Senior Paralegal

After receiving her paralegal certificate in 2005, Cara began working in assisted reproductive law. During the fifteen years Cara has worked in this field, she has gained a wide range of experience and knowledge that she uses to help better assist clients and those involved in the assisted reproductive journey. Cara’s primary roles involve managing parental establishment matters and coordination with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorney network, drafting contracts and parental establishment court documents and providing support to other team members. Cara finds great joy in being a small part of a team of caring people who help others achieve their dream of having a family. In her spare time, Cara enjoys spending time with her husband and three children, watching her children play the sports they love, and she enjoys, running, cycling and exploring the outdoors in the sun.

Stephanie Kimble

Stephanie received her BS in History and Political Thought from Concordia University Irvine in 2015 and her Paralegal Certificate from University of San Diego later that same year. She has been working as a Paralegal since 2016 in Family and Reproductive Law. She is excited to be part of International Fertility Law Group working on managing Surrogacy, Egg donation and Parental Establishment Cases.

Trish Pittman
Assistant Financial Coordinator

With more than 20 years of experience in the field of accounting, Trish joined the IFLG team in 2019 as Assistant Financial Coordinator. Her client-facing focus at IFLG is to assist with all client trust accounting. Trish is the mother of two daughters and enjoys spending time teaching and learning new things from them. In her free time, she loves long walks in the park and reading suspense and mystery novels.

Katie Deaquino
Senior Paralegal

Katie is a Senior Paralegal with IFLG and has dedicated over sixteen years to the areas of surrogacy and reproductive law. She received her Paralegal Certificate from Coastline Community College and has worked with some of the top law firms in the assisted reproduction community. Katie is also a commissioned Notary Public. With IFLG, Katie manages Surrogacy, Egg Donation, and Parental Establishment cases and provides support to other IFLG team members. Katie truly enjoys helping others build their families through assisted reproduction and is thankful she has had the rewarding experience of assisting IFLG clients. Katie often spends her free time with her Husband, four young children and her bulldog “Bella”.

Elsa Jimenez
Legal Assistant

Elsa joined IFLG as a Legal Assistant in 2019, bringing more than 35 years of experience working in the legal profession (concentrating in tort and litigation matters). At IFLG she assists surrogates with their surrogacy and parental matters. The oldest of five siblings, born and raised in East Los Angeles to Mexican immigrant parents, Elsa loves “seeing the beauty of families forming” through assisted reproductive technology. She and her husband Carlos have four children and one grandson. Elsa enjoys jazz and ’80s music, being outdoors in nature, collecting teacups and tea pots, and spending time with her close-knit family.