Is Same-Sex Marriage at Risk in Supreme Court? 5 Things LGBTQ Families Should Know

As the U.S. Supreme Court reconvened last week for the first time since the death of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg, conservative U.S. Supreme Court Justices Clarence Thomas and Samuel A. Alito Jr. came out with a harsh critique of the court’s 2015 decision legalizing same-sex marriage—sparking a surge of anxiety for LGBTQ couples and their families who have watched the Trump administration chip away at their hard-won rights.

Writing on behalf of LGBTQ advocacy organization Family Equality Council, Jim Obergefell, plaintiff in the 2015 same-sex marriage case, says “there is no question that we are at a heightened risk of attacks against our marriages and families.

 Deciding not to hear an appeal from Kim Davis (the infamous Kentucky county clerk who was sued for refusing to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples) should have been good news. That is, until Justices Thomas and Alito released a statement questioning the landmark precedent establishing nationwide marriage equality in the case that bears my name: Obergefell v. Hodges.”

LGBTQ Families Under Fire

Following the 2016 presidential election, with all three branches of government under Republican control, we heard from lots of LGBTQ people concerned about the potential risk to their marriage rights. We wrote then:

“In fact, the greater danger to your family’s security under a Trump presidency may be legislative efforts to defund and weaken our societal safety nets such as Social Security, Medicare and the Affordable Care Act. As governor of Indiana, Vice President-elect Mike Pence enacted and defended a ‘religious freedom’ law that would have allowed businesses to discriminate against LGBT people on the basis of religion, although he later backpedaled. And Trump has paid lip service to supporting a national law that would protect states’ rights to enact such discriminatory laws. Arguably, these and other issues are of more immediate concern than the loss of marriage equality.

While this latest threat to revoke their right to marry is understandably terrifying for LGBTQ people, keep in mind that the historic 2015 decision in Obergefell v. Hodges establishing same-sex marriage as a constitutional right is not before the Court at this time.

Even Justice Thomas, who wrote the recent dissent opinion criticizing Obergefell, is not proposing to overturn it. Rather, he seems to support chipping away at Obergefell piecemeal, via religious freedom cases.

Here are five things you should know about last week’s Thomas-Alito decision and the state of same-sex marriage in the United States.

1) Thomas’s and Alito’s attack on same-sex marriage is nothing new

 The two conservative justices voted against marriage equality in 2015 when Obergefell was heard, so their objections do not constitute a change in position. Their dissent in the 5-4 Obergefell decision cited the same objection cited in their recent dissent when the Court declined to hear a separate but related case, Kim Davis v. David Ermold, et al.

There is little doubt their opinion was timed to impact the political conversation around the upcoming presidential election and the confirmation of conservative Judge Amy Coney Barrett to the Supreme Court—even as voting is already underway.

As The Chicago Tribune reported, “The stinging opinion from Thomas renewed the debate over how established the Court’s Obergefell decision should be seen. Some liberal activists said it was an indication the court might revisit the decision, especially if President Trump’s nomination of Judge Amy Coney Barrett is successful.

Following the Obergefell decision in 2015, Davis, a former county clerk for Rowan County, Kentucky, refused to issue marriage licenses to any couples so that she would not be forced to issue licenses to same-sex couples in violation of her religious beliefs. As the report continues, “[s]he was sued by gay and straight couples, and a federal judge ordered Davis to issue the licenses. She refused and spent five days in jail.” She was defeated in her re-election bid.

The case made national headlines. As the Tribune report continues:

“She was released only after her staff issued the licenses on her behalf but removed her name from the form. The state legislature later enacted a law removing the names of all county clerks from state marriage licenses.

“A federal judge later ruled Kentucky taxpayers must pay the couples' legal fees of about $225,000.”

Davis’ claim of qualified immunity in the suit against her was rejected by a panel of the 6th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals. Last week, the U.S. Supreme Court declined to take up the case, with Thomas and Alito in agreement with the Court’s denial of the writ of certiorari, even as they issued their dissent attacking Obergefell and same-sex marriage.

2) Supreme Court Justices don’t always vote the way we think they will

Barrett’s likely Senate confirmation to fill the seat of the late Justice Ruth Bader Ginsberg would tip the U.S. Supreme Court further to the right, creating a 6-3 conservative majority.

But history has shown us that Supreme Court justices, who are appointed for life, don’t always vote in accordance with their liberal or conservative backgrounds. For example, now-retired Justice Anthony Kennedy, who was nominated to the Court by President Ronald Reagan, angered conservatives in 1992 when he joined with Justices Sandra Day O’Connor and David Souter to uphold Roe v. Wade in the case Planned Parenthood v. Casey.

When Obergefell was decided in 2015, Kennedy wrote the majority opinion, joining liberal Justices Ruth Bader Ginsberg, Steven Breyer, Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan. Conservative Chief Justice John Roberts, with Justices Antonin Scalia, now deceased, Thomas and Alito dissenting.

Trump has since succeeded in filling two Supreme Court seats with conservative jurists. In 2017, he filled the vacancy left by Justice Scalia’s death, after Mitch McConnell and the Republican-majority Senate refused to hold hearings on President Barack Obama’s nominee, Merrick Garland. In 2018, upon Justice Kennedy’s retirement, the Senate confirmed Trump nominee Brett Kavanaugh following a lurid confirmation process and hasty FBI investigation of sexual assault allegations.

Now it appears likely the Senate will confirm a third Trump nominee, Barrett, in a rushed procedure held as much of the country is already voting in the presidential election, widening the presumed conservative-liberal gap on the court to 6-3.

But keep in mind that two of the justices seated under Republican administrations, Roberts and Trump’s own nominee, Neil Gorsuch, are very concerned with what big business wants, as their voting records demonstrate. And big business doesn't want a patchwork of laws where someone is married in one state and not in another. Insurance companies, for instance, want to know if someone is married or not; uncertainty is expensive.

Historically, the Court has not so much led the country’s policies as responded to social change in progress. Despite conservative opposition to LGBTQ equality and marriage equality, American society as a whole now supports and defends those ideals. Even with more conservative justices on the bench, the Roberts Court is likely to resist dragging the country in the opposite direction.

The more likely scenario, to which Thomas alludes in the recent Baker dissent, is that the Court will use religious liberty challenges to carve out more limited exceptions for those whose religious beliefs preclude their acceptance of LGBTQ rights. While that is still a concerning prospect for the months and years ahead, it is a slower, more circumscribed kind of attack than a sweeping reversal of Obergefell.

3) Even if the Supreme Court overturns same-sex marriage, LGBTQ people who are married now will remain legally married

The most likely scenario if same-sex marriage laws were reversed is that already married same-sex couples would remain married. 

Remember Proposition 8 way back in 2008? In May 2008, the California Supreme Court struck down two state laws that limited marriage to heterosexual couples, legalizing same-sex marriage in the state. By that fall, 26,000 California same-sex couples had wed.

But in November, in the same election that brought Barack Obama to the U.S. presidency, California voters passed Prop 8, which amended the state constitution to limit marriage to one and one woman, stripping LGBTQ Californians of the right they had won just months earlier.

But those 26,000 same-sex couples already married under California law? They were not suddenly “unmarried” as a result of Prop 8. Rather they remained legally married, in a class that was separate and protected—creating yet another sub-class of persons treated differently under the law—exactly what the equal protection clause of the U.S. Constitution protects against. The resulting chaos impacted everything from income tax reporting to health and pension benefits. Proposition 8 was ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in 2009.

4) Don’t panic. Prepare to protect your family and your parental rights

If you are in a same-sex marriage, let the recent Thomas-Alito decision scare you just enough to make sure you complete that second-parent adoption and get your wills and estate plan done.

In most jurisdictions, when one parent is not biologically related to a child born via surrogacy, the non-biological parent must undergo a second-parent adoption establishing the non-bio parent as the child’s legal parent. Even if this extra step is not a requirement in your state, a second-parent adoption will protect parental rights even if the family moves or is traveling in a different state.

Likewise, be sure you are prepared for the unexpected. Make sure you have wills, estate plans and guardianships in place to ensure your most precious assets—your children and your family—are protected, regardless of changes to the political landscape.

Our experienced team of IFLG fertility lawyers and paralegals can answer all your questions about parental establishment and family planning documents and what will provide the most security in your unique situation.

5) Elections have consequences

Without a doubt, the 2020 presidential election is the most critical of our lifetimes.

We should remind everyone we know to do their part to ensure justice and equality—and to help take back the Senate and help give Biden a landslide. Contribute to campaigns if you can and talk to everyone you know.

The future of the Supreme Court is unclear. Even with an electoral win for the Democrats, the transition to a new president is threatened, and better assured with a landslide.

That said, I don't see an imminent threat from these statements from Thomas and Alito. Obergefell is not before the Court, and it is not clear the Court has an appetite for taking it on headfirst anytime soon. 

What is more likely is that the court would create religious exemptions allowing government workers and public officials to deny services to LGBTQ people so long as there are others who will perform the civic duty.

For example, someone like Kim Davis in Kentucky would have the legal right refuse to sign a marriage certificate, but someone else in the clerk's office would have to do it. Not that I agree with this solution, of course, but it seems like SCOTUS, in a worst-case scenario, is more likely to chip away at our rights rather than get rid of them altogether.

Although letting one city/county clerk at a time deny same-sex couples their legal rights on religious grounds is the most likely outcome in the foreseeable future, given the good news that the Supreme Court has declined to take up the case, even that terrible outcome is unlikely, at least for right now.

Of course, I tend toward optimism and faith that the moral arc of the universe bends toward justice (and equality and freedom).

That said, a little bit of alarm right now is not so bad and is not unwarranted. We all must be vigilant in keeping an eye out for signs of trouble, for threats to our democracy and to the safety of our non-traditional families.

Don’t panic. Get your house in order, get active if you can, and, above all, vote.




Richard Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn is founder and principal of International Fertility Law Group, one of the world’s largest and best-known law firms focused exclusively on assisted reproductive technology, or ART, including in vitro fertilization (IVF), surrogacy, sperm donation or egg donation. Rich is co-author of the book “Developing A Successful Assisted Reproduction Technology Law Practice,” American Bar Association Publishing, 2017.

Peiya Wang
Paralegal (律师助理)

Peiya Wang joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2015, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases and provides translation services for many of IFLG’s international clients. Peiya moved to the United States in 2012 to attend Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, receiving a Master of Science degree in Global Studies and International Affairs in 2014. Peiya moved to Los Angeles in 2015, received her paralegal certification from UCLA Extension, and obtained her second Master of Science degree in Legal Studies from Loyola Law School. Peiya relocated back to her hometown, Beijing, China in 2019 and works from IFLG’s Beijing office. When away from the office, Peiya is a dragon boat paddler and a ballroom dancer, where she favors Rumbas and Cha-chas. She is fluent in Mandarin and English.

Luis Sosa

Luis R. Sosa joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2016, where he enjoys pursuing his passion for family and reproductive law. While working toward his bachelor’s degree at Florida International University which he received in 2013, Luis worked as a paralegal and legal assistant for family law litigation firms in Miami and Washington, D.C. As a paralegal and case manager for IFLG, Luis, who is bilingual in English and Spanish, manages surrogacy, egg donation and other reproductive law cases. Luis has worked for IFLG in both Los Angeles as well as San Francisco, and is currently based in Dallas, Texas. In addition to spending time with husband Randy and dog Marty, Luis enjoys being outdoors and appreciating the arts.

Toni Hughes

After receiving her B.S. in Business Management, Toni joined IFLG to pursue her dream of working in the legal field. As a Paralegal with over 10 years of experience in the assisted reproduction technology field, Toni is our Managing Paralegal, responsible for training and managing our paralegal staff. From drafting legal documents to assisting our clients with post-birth matters, Toni embraces the challenge of learning something new in this field each day. Besides spending time with her son, Jordan, Toni enjoys exploring new things, cooking, spending time with family and friends, and serving as a Youth Advisor for “Next Generation.”


Kim has over 30 years of experience in the legal field and has worked exclusively in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 1999. Kim is a senior case manager responsible for managing parental establishment cases and interacting with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorneys across the country. With three children of her own, Kim understands the importance of family and finds working in this area of law a rewarding experience.

Rich Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn combined his personal passion as a father of twin boys born via assisted reproductive technology (ART) with more than 20 years of experience in business and technology law to build International Fertility Law Group. Today IFLG is one of the most successful and best-known law firms in the world focused exclusively on fertility law, helping thousands of intended parents through empathetic listening, compassionate guidance, and unmatched legal expertise. As an advocate for reproductive freedom, Rich also contributes his knowledge and time to improving the understanding and practice of ART law, most recently as a founder of and speaker at the first Cambridge University International Surrogacy Symposium held in June 2019, as immediate past chair of the American Bar Association ART Committee, and as a popular presenter to law schools, faculty and advocacy organizations all over the world.

Elizabeth Tamayo

Elizabeth received her Bachelors of Science degree in Criminal Justice from California State University of Los Angeles. Shortly after graduating, she continued her education at the University of California, Los Angeles where she obtained her Paralegal certificate. Elizabeth is fluent in Spanish and has been in the legal field since 2009. She is excited to be a part of the IFLG Team helping families realize their dreams.

Sunny Chien

Sunny joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2017, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s international clients. She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy from California State University of Los Angeles, where she graduated cum laude. Sunny is bilingual in English and Mandarin and has extensive experience as a legal assistant and paralegal at Los Angeles-area law firms. She is excited to be part of the IFLG team. In her spare time, Sunny enjoys spending time with her family and their dog, going to the beach, cooking, and being outdoors.

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New York

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New York, NY 10017

Phone:  +1 844 400 2016

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Molly O'Brien

Fertility law attorney Molly O’Brien began working in the field of assisted reproduction technology (ART) in 2005, at an egg donation agency and a surrogacy agency where she became familiar with all aspects of in-vitro fertilization, egg donation and the financial aspects of surrogacy. Since becoming an attorney in 2011, Molly has drafted and negotiated surrogacy, egg donation, sperm donation embryo donation agreements for hundreds of her clients all over the world.

Phoebe Sadler

Fertility law attorney Phoebe Sadler has a background in family law and has been practicing exclusively in the area of assisted reproduction technology (ART) law since 2018.

Rubina Aslanyan

Rubina has an extensive background in the legal field as a paralegal in Family Law and has worked in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 2012. Her area of focus is in managing and assisting clients with surrogacy, egg donation, and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s domestic and international clients. During her spare time, Rubina enjoys spending time with her family and dog Bella, traveling and cooking.

Alexander Espinoza
Legal Assistant

Alexander joined IFLG as a legal assistant in 2019, where he manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases. Alex is bilingual in English and Spanish and has been in the legal field for 23 years. Alex is excited to join the IFLG team and pursuing his will to help others in the reproductive law process. In his spare time he loves spending time with his family and friends, being outdoors, road trips, loves music and dancing.

Cara Stecker
Senior Paralegal

After receiving her paralegal certificate in 2005, Cara began working in assisted reproductive law. During the fifteen years Cara has worked in this field, she has gained a wide range of experience and knowledge that she uses to help better assist clients and those involved in the assisted reproductive journey. Cara’s primary roles involve managing parental establishment matters and coordination with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorney network, drafting contracts and parental establishment court documents and providing support to other team members. Cara finds great joy in being a small part of a team of caring people who help others achieve their dream of having a family. In her spare time, Cara enjoys spending time with her husband and three children, watching her children play the sports they love, and she enjoys, running, cycling and exploring the outdoors in the sun.

Stephanie Kimble

Stephanie received her BS in History and Political Thought from Concordia University Irvine in 2015 and her Paralegal Certificate from University of San Diego later that same year. She has been working as a Paralegal since 2016 in Family and Reproductive Law. She is excited to be part of International Fertility Law Group working on managing Surrogacy, Egg donation and Parental Establishment Cases.

Trish Pittman
Assistant Financial Coordinator

With more than 20 years of experience in the field of accounting, Trish joined the IFLG team in 2019 as Assistant Financial Coordinator. Her client-facing focus at IFLG is to assist with all client trust accounting. Trish is the mother of two daughters and enjoys spending time teaching and learning new things from them. In her free time, she loves long walks in the park and reading suspense and mystery novels.

Katie Deaquino
Senior Paralegal

Katie is a Senior Paralegal with IFLG and has dedicated over sixteen years to the areas of surrogacy and reproductive law. She received her Paralegal Certificate from Coastline Community College and has worked with some of the top law firms in the assisted reproduction community. Katie is also a commissioned Notary Public. With IFLG, Katie manages Surrogacy, Egg Donation, and Parental Establishment cases and provides support to other IFLG team members. Katie truly enjoys helping others build their families through assisted reproduction and is thankful she has had the rewarding experience of assisting IFLG clients. Katie often spends her free time with her Husband, four young children and her bulldog “Bella”.

Elsa Jimenez
Legal Assistant

Elsa joined IFLG as a Legal Assistant in 2019, bringing more than 35 years of experience working in the legal profession (concentrating in tort and litigation matters). At IFLG she assists surrogates with their surrogacy and parental matters. The oldest of five siblings, born and raised in East Los Angeles to Mexican immigrant parents, Elsa loves “seeing the beauty of families forming” through assisted reproductive technology. She and her husband Carlos have four children and one grandson. Elsa enjoys jazz and ’80s music, being outdoors in nature, collecting teacups and tea pots, and spending time with her close-knit family.