COVID-19 Vaccination Question Now Part of Surrogacy Agreements

The COVID-19 pandemic has added a new critical area of questions to consider in matching intended parents and potential surrogates: COVID vaccination status—is the surrogate vaccinated? Do the intended parents want the surrogate to be vaccinated? Is the surrogate willing to be vaccinated? If she is not vaccinated prior to pregnancy, how do the parties feel about  vaccination during pregnancy?  What about booster shots?  Intended parents and surrogates must address these questions early in the process—ideally during the matching process, but certainly as part of the surrogacy agreement itself.

Today, most surrogacy agencies and third-party matching organizations include questions about COVID vaccination status and preferences as part of their application processes. As new variants of the virus emerge, extending the need for public health measures and travel restrictions, it appears increasingly likely that COVID vaccination will, for quite some time, remain an important question to be addressed before entering into surrogacy agreements.

Surrogacies Delayed by COVID-19 Pandemic

The impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on all aspects of human life are myriad and ongoing. The American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) advised fertility clinics at the time of the first pandemic lockdowns to pause all ongoing procedures other than emergencies and to put a hold on beginning new cycles. Early on, with much of the world on lockdown, intended parents who had traveled abroad for surrogacy found themselves stranded with their newborns, unable to return to their home countries. In many cases, COVID travel bans prevented or disrupted parents’ travel to be present at their babies’ birth.

The fertility industry quickly developed new COVID-19 protocols, enabling them to ramp up fairly quickly and to operate safely amid a post-lockdown rush on services. A combination of factors—restarting of postponed procedures, post-lockdown urgency to travel and visit loved ones, etc.—resulted in a mismatch between the demand of intended parents seeking a surrogate and the supply of surrogates available. Agencies now consistently report massive decreases in the availability of eligible surrogates, resulting in significantly expanded wait times for an appropriate match. As reported by Fortune in March, the head of one New Jersey surrogacy agency reported a more than 60 percent decrease in eligible surrogates compared to prior years.

Now, in a country and world that is deeply polarized in its views on COVID-19, divisions surrounding COVID vaccination have only added to the complexity of making a successful parent-surrogate match.

Intended Parents, Surrogates Must Agree on COVID-19 Vaccination

One complicating factor is the same polarization that has split the U.S. population over issues of COVID vaccination requirements, masking and other public health measures. Most agencies have reported that while the overwhelming majority of their intended parent clients insist their surrogate receive the COVID-19 vaccine before becoming pregnant, only a minority of would-be surrogates are willing to get or have received the vaccine.

Of course, there are other cases in which the opposite is true: Some intended parents insist that a surrogate be and remain unvaccinated for the duration of the pregnancy.

One important purpose of a surrogacy agreement is to ensure the responsibilities and rights of all parties are defined, documented and agreed upon. Typically, a surrogacy agreement specifies that a surrogate will undergo certain health and mental health screenings, that she will receive appropriate pre-natal health care, and that she will comply with certain restrictions on her behavior during the pregnancy. Of course, foundational to any surrogacy agreement is the principle that the surrogate retains the ultimate right to make decisions about her own health.

COVID-19 has now become part of the conversation, mostly before entering into a surrogacy agreement, but sometimes during contract negotiations as well. The issue is highly likely to remain part of these conversations for a long time to come, possibly even permanently. Whether or not the surrogate is vaccinated, or whether she will become vaccinated, receive a booster, or forego vaccination or boosters as a condition of the agreement, should now be documented for every surrogacy. While medical science doesn’t yet have all the answers about this new virus, its risks, and its long-term impacts, many questions will be answered with time and more data. It is the hope of our team at IFLG that confusion and concerns of intended parents and surrogates alike will be alleviated over time, as clear answers, based on sound science, emerge. For now, clarifying and documenting agreement around COVID-19 vaccination is critically important for intended parents, surrogates and the professionals who serve them.



Richard Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn is founder and principal of International Fertility Law Group, one of the world’s largest and best-known law firms focused exclusively on assisted reproductive technology, or ART, including in vitro fertilization (IVF), surrogacy, sperm donation or egg donation. Rich is co-author of the book “Developing A Successful Assisted Reproduction Technology Law Practice,” American Bar Association Publishing, 2017.

Peiya Wang
Paralegal (律师助理)

Peiya Wang joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2015, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases and provides translation services for many of IFLG’s international clients. Peiya moved to the United States in 2012 to attend Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, receiving a Master of Science degree in Global Studies and International Affairs in 2014. Peiya moved to Los Angeles in 2015, received her paralegal certification from UCLA Extension, and obtained her second Master of Science degree in Legal Studies from Loyola Law School. Peiya relocated back to her hometown, Beijing, China in 2019 and works from IFLG’s Beijing office. When away from the office, Peiya is a dragon boat paddler and a ballroom dancer, where she favors Rumbas and Cha-chas. She is fluent in Mandarin and English.

Luis Sosa

Luis R. Sosa joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2016, where he enjoys pursuing his passion for family and reproductive law. While working toward his bachelor’s degree at Florida International University which he received in 2013, Luis worked as a paralegal and legal assistant for family law litigation firms in Miami and Washington, D.C. As a paralegal and case manager for IFLG, Luis, who is bilingual in English and Spanish, manages surrogacy, egg donation and other reproductive law cases. Luis has worked for IFLG in both Los Angeles as well as San Francisco, and is currently based in Dallas, Texas. In addition to spending time with husband Randy and dog Marty, Luis enjoys being outdoors and appreciating the arts.

Toni Hughes

After receiving her B.S. in Business Management, Toni joined IFLG to pursue her dream of working in the legal field. As a Paralegal with over 10 years of experience in the assisted reproduction technology field, Toni is our Managing Paralegal, responsible for training and managing our paralegal staff. From drafting legal documents to assisting our clients with post-birth matters, Toni embraces the challenge of learning something new in this field each day. Besides spending time with her son, Jordan, Toni enjoys exploring new things, cooking, spending time with family and friends, and serving as a Youth Advisor for “Next Generation.”


Kim has over 30 years of experience in the legal field and has worked exclusively in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 1999. Kim is a senior case manager responsible for managing parental establishment cases and interacting with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorneys across the country. With three children of her own, Kim understands the importance of family and finds working in this area of law a rewarding experience.

Rich Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn combined his personal passion as a father of twin boys born via assisted reproductive technology (ART) with more than 20 years of experience in business and technology law to build International Fertility Law Group. Today IFLG is one of the most successful and best-known law firms in the world focused exclusively on fertility law, helping thousands of intended parents through empathetic listening, compassionate guidance, and unmatched legal expertise. As an advocate for reproductive freedom, Rich also contributes his knowledge and time to improving the understanding and practice of ART law, most recently as a founder of and speaker at the first Cambridge University International Surrogacy Symposium held in June 2019, as immediate past chair of the American Bar Association ART Committee, and as a popular presenter to law schools, faculty and advocacy organizations all over the world.

Elizabeth Tamayo

Elizabeth received her Bachelors of Science degree in Criminal Justice from California State University of Los Angeles. Shortly after graduating, she continued her education at the University of California, Los Angeles where she obtained her Paralegal certificate. Elizabeth is fluent in Spanish and has been in the legal field since 2009. She is excited to be a part of the IFLG Team helping families realize their dreams.

Sunny Chien

Sunny joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2017, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s international clients. She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy from California State University of Los Angeles, where she graduated cum laude. Sunny is bilingual in English and Mandarin and has extensive experience as a legal assistant and paralegal at Los Angeles-area law firms. She is excited to be part of the IFLG team. In her spare time, Sunny enjoys spending time with her family and their dog, going to the beach, cooking, and being outdoors.

Los Angeles

5757 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 645

Los Angeles, CA 90036

Phone:  +1 323 331 9343

Email:  info@iflg.net

Website:  www.iflg.net

New York

501 Fifth Avenue, Suite 1900

New York, NY 10017

Phone:  +1 844 400 2016

Email:  info@iflg.net

Website:  www.iflg.net

Molly O'Brien

Fertility law attorney Molly O’Brien began working in the field of assisted reproduction technology (ART) in 2005, at an egg donation agency and a surrogacy agency where she became familiar with all aspects of in-vitro fertilization, egg donation and the financial aspects of surrogacy. Since becoming an attorney in 2011, Molly has drafted and negotiated surrogacy, egg donation, sperm donation embryo donation agreements for hundreds of her clients all over the world.

Phoebe Sadler

Fertility law attorney Phoebe Sadler has a background in family law and has been practicing exclusively in the area of assisted reproduction technology (ART) law since 2018.

Rubina Aslanyan

Rubina has an extensive background in the legal field as a paralegal in Family Law and has worked in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 2012. Her area of focus is in managing and assisting clients with surrogacy, egg donation, and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s domestic and international clients. During her spare time, Rubina enjoys spending time with her family and dog Bella, traveling and cooking.

Alexander Espinoza
Legal Assistant

Alexander joined IFLG as a legal assistant in 2019, where he manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases. Alex is bilingual in English and Spanish and has been in the legal field for 23 years. Alex is excited to join the IFLG team and pursuing his will to help others in the reproductive law process. In his spare time he loves spending time with his family and friends, being outdoors, road trips, loves music and dancing.

Cara Stecker
Senior Paralegal

After receiving her paralegal certificate in 2005, Cara began working in assisted reproductive law. During the fifteen years Cara has worked in this field, she has gained a wide range of experience and knowledge that she uses to help better assist clients and those involved in the assisted reproductive journey. Cara’s primary roles involve managing parental establishment matters and coordination with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorney network, drafting contracts and parental establishment court documents and providing support to other team members. Cara finds great joy in being a small part of a team of caring people who help others achieve their dream of having a family. In her spare time, Cara enjoys spending time with her husband and three children, watching her children play the sports they love, and she enjoys, running, cycling and exploring the outdoors in the sun.

Stephanie Kimble

Stephanie received her BS in History and Political Thought from Concordia University Irvine in 2015 and her Paralegal Certificate from University of San Diego later that same year. She has been working as a Paralegal since 2016 in Family and Reproductive Law. She is excited to be part of International Fertility Law Group working on managing Surrogacy, Egg donation and Parental Establishment Cases.

Trish Pittman
Assistant Financial Coordinator

With more than 20 years of experience in the field of accounting, Trish joined the IFLG team in 2019 as Assistant Financial Coordinator. Her client-facing focus at IFLG is to assist with all client trust accounting. Trish is the mother of two daughters and enjoys spending time teaching and learning new things from them. In her free time, she loves long walks in the park and reading suspense and mystery novels.

Katie Deaquino
Senior Paralegal

Katie is a Senior Paralegal with IFLG and has dedicated over sixteen years to the areas of surrogacy and reproductive law. She received her Paralegal Certificate from Coastline Community College and has worked with some of the top law firms in the assisted reproduction community. Katie is also a commissioned Notary Public. With IFLG, Katie manages Surrogacy, Egg Donation, and Parental Establishment cases and provides support to other IFLG team members. Katie truly enjoys helping others build their families through assisted reproduction and is thankful she has had the rewarding experience of assisting IFLG clients. Katie often spends her free time with her Husband, four young children and her bulldog “Bella”.

Elsa Jimenez
Legal Assistant

Elsa joined IFLG as a Legal Assistant in 2019, bringing more than 35 years of experience working in the legal profession (concentrating in tort and litigation matters). At IFLG she assists surrogates with their surrogacy and parental matters. The oldest of five siblings, born and raised in East Los Angeles to Mexican immigrant parents, Elsa loves “seeing the beauty of families forming” through assisted reproductive technology. She and her husband Carlos have four children and one grandson. Elsa enjoys jazz and ’80s music, being outdoors in nature, collecting teacups and tea pots, and spending time with her close-knit family.