Rich Vaughn, IFLG Blog: Left Opposes Bill to End NY Surrogacy Ban

Left Blocks Bill to Overturn NY Surrogacy Ban

Even as it approaches the finish line, legislation to finally end New York state’s ban on gestational surrogacy is facing vocal opposition from an unexpected source: the feminist left.

We began writing about growing expectations that the state of New York was progressing toward ending its ban on gestational surrogacy in 2013, when we first reported on the Child-Parent Security Act, introduced by Assemblywoman Amy Paulin (D-88th) in May 2012.

New York, along with a number of other states, instituted its ban on surrogacy in the wake of the 1987 so-called “Baby M” case, in which surrogate Mary Beth Whitehead agreed to carry a baby for an infertile married couple, then refused to give the baby up, even though the intended father was the biological dad.

In that case, Whitehead’s egg was used to conceive along with sperm from the intended father. Today, as assisted reproductive technology has advanced and best practices have evolved, fertility physicians no longer recommend “traditional” or “genetic surrogacy” such as in the Baby M case. Genetic surrogacy, in which the surrogate is genetically related to the baby, would remain illegal in New York, even if the new legislation is enacted.

As explained in a recent New York Times update on efforts to end New York’s surrogacy ban:

Under New York law, paid surrogacy is punishable by a fine. So-called altruistic, or unpaid, surrogacy arrangements are not viewed as criminal, but such agreements are not legally binding or enforceable [our emphasis].

The fact that surrogacy agreements are unenforceable in the state means that, even for a woman who agreed to serve as a surrogate with no remuneration—for example, a family member—there would be no enforceable agreement to protect the rights of either her, the surrogate, or the intended parents. No agreement as to conditions under which the pregnancy might be terminated, embryo reduction, pre-natal care and surrogate health, no waiver of surrogate parental rights.

The effect was to end all forms of surrogacy in New York. The ban was hailed by a coalition of conservative and religious voices, a constituency that has, since 1988, consistently lobbied in support of the ban, as we wrote:

New York Governor Mario Cuomo established his state’s Task Force, which includes attorneys, medical professionals, religious leaders and public officials, in 1984. During the Baby M backlash of 1987, Cuomo assigned the Task Force to examine the issues surrounding surrogacy. In 1988 it issued its recommendation to outlaw compensated surrogacy, stating “society can conclude that the potential or likely risks of a practice outweigh the benefits conferred without awaiting broad-scale social experimentation.”

But by 2017, advocates for surrogacy and reproductive freedom in New York were seeing a sea-change in attitudes and weakening opposition to surrogacy. As we wrote early in 2018:

In its December report, the Task Force points out that “the impact of surrogacy is no longer speculative,” and its work is informed by a growing body of research. In 1988, the Task Force concluded that surrogacy was likely to lead to children being treated as commodities; today research has shown that children are not harmed by surrogacy, nor are a surrogate’s biologically related children harmed by having their mother serve as a surrogate. “Research has revealed that children born through surrogacy and other ART practices are extremely desired children and are being raised by highly committed and loving parents.”

On February 27, 2019, the New York State Assembly Judiciary Committee approved The Child Parent Security Act and sent it to the full Assembly—the first time the bill had made it this far in the legislative process

As we wrote then, earlier that month New York Governor Andrew Cuomo signaled his support for ending the ban, announcing his intention to include the act in his executive budget plan. With an end to the ban included in the state budget bill, and Democrats controlling both houses of the state legislature, surrogacy advocates were heartened, convinced the bill was, finally, entering the home stretch for passage.

Enter Gloria Steinem. An icon of the feminist left, Steinem is renowned as a leader of the feminist revolution that swept America in the 1970s and 80s, a champion for women’s right to choose, to have agency over their own bodies, and to have successful and fulfilling careers outside the home. Ironically, despite the fact Steinem and her movement influenced many women to postpone childbearing to focus on careers, she now opposes egg donation, IVF and surrogacy, technologies that can give women who did so the opportunity to be later-life parents.

Unfortunately, Steinem’s letter to legislators hails back to a 1998 Task Force report, when the body unanimously deemed “commercial surrogate parenting” “harmful to the women whose bodies are used and to the children they bear” and cited concerns about exploitation of poor or financially disadvantaged women. In doing so Steinem failed to acknowledge the Task Force’s 2017 report, which reverses that recommendation, and the fact that current industry best practice is to screen surrogates intensively, not only for health and mental health conditions but for financial stability. Women living in poverty or whose families are experiencing financial distress are disqualified.

In fact, surrogacy bans like New York’s discriminate against women who want to serve as surrogates. In response to Steinem’s claims that surrogacy “undermines women’s control over their bodies” and “jeopardizes women’s reproductive rights,” the leadership of RESOLVE, The National Infertility Association, writes: “The choice to HAVE a child must be treated with the same respect we give to women as the choice NOT to have a child.”

In fact, legalizing surrogacy in New York may reduce the number of women who opt to travel abroad for surrogacy services. Since 1998, the surrogacy ban has pushed tens of thousands of New York intended parents to pursue surrogacy overseas, where costs may be lower, but quality of care and regulatory oversight may be lacking. Intended parents pursuing surrogacy abroad may inadvertently support surrogacy-for-sale and human trafficking. In contrast, legal surrogacy in the United States, subject to U.S. laws and standards of care, protects all parties: donors, surrogates, intended parents and children.

The addition of a Surrogate’s Bill of Rights contained in the New York legislation may well make it the “gold standard” for surrogacy laws in the United States. The Surrogate’s Bill of Rights establishes the surrogate’s right to quality health care and insurance coverage covered by intended parents, the right to terminate the pregnancy for any reason, and the right to counseling and life insurance covered by IPs. Additionally the bill requires the New York Department of Health to issue guidelines mandating full disclosure of health risks associated with pregnancy and egg donation. The law would require that at least one intended parent be a U.S. citizen or permanent resident.

Other progressive female lawmakers have joined opposition to lifting the surrogacy ban. Assemblywoman Deborah Glick, who took office in 1991—the first openly gay legislator in state history—cited the traditionally high costs of IVF and surrogacy. In a statement to the New York Times, Glick said, “This is clearly is a problem for the extraordinarily well-heeled.”

What Glick’s statement fails to acknowledge is that with constantly improving technology, a growing number of providers and initial success in persuading some insurers to cover ART procedures, prices are beginning to drop. In addition, new programs have sprung up that aim to match “excess” cryopreserved, or frozen, embryos, typically left over from the IVF process, with intended parents who do not have the ability to pay for fertility treatment.

As Steinem et al join conservative “strange bedfellows” in opposing the bill, the clock is winding down on the New York state legislative session. The bill will come to a vote before the full legislature this week, and Governor Cuomo has committed to signing it into law.

Of course, we must remain vigilant to ensure we continue to safeguard surrogate rights and to guard against exploitation. Long overdue, the reversal of New York’s ban would go a long way toward making surrogacy a viable option in the Empire State.


Richard Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn is founder and principal of International Fertility Law Group, one of the world’s largest and best-known law firms focused exclusively on assisted reproductive technology, or ART, including in vitro fertilization (IVF), surrogacy, sperm donation or egg donation. Rich is co-author of the book “Developing A Successful Assisted Reproduction Technology Law Practice,” American Bar Association Publishing, 2017.

Peiya Wang
Paralegal (律师助理)

Peiya Wang joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2015, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases and provides translation services for many of IFLG’s international clients. Peiya moved to the United States in 2012 to attend Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, receiving a Master of Science degree in Global Studies and International Affairs in 2014. Peiya moved to Los Angeles in 2015, received her paralegal certification from UCLA Extension, and obtained her second Master of Science degree in Legal Studies from Loyola Law School. Peiya relocated back to her hometown, Beijing, China in 2019 and works from IFLG’s Beijing office. When away from the office, Peiya is a dragon boat paddler and a ballroom dancer, where she favors Rumbas and Cha-chas. She is fluent in Mandarin and English.

Luis Sosa

Luis R. Sosa joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2016, where he enjoys pursuing his passion for family and reproductive law. While working toward his bachelor’s degree at Florida International University which he received in 2013, Luis worked as a paralegal and legal assistant for family law litigation firms in Miami and Washington, D.C. As a paralegal and case manager for IFLG, Luis, who is bilingual in English and Spanish, manages surrogacy, egg donation and other reproductive law cases. Luis has worked for IFLG in both Los Angeles as well as San Francisco, and is currently based in Dallas, Texas. In addition to spending time with husband Randy and dog Marty, Luis enjoys being outdoors and appreciating the arts.

Toni Hughes

After receiving her B.S. in Business Management, Toni joined IFLG to pursue her dream of working in the legal field. As a Paralegal with over 10 years of experience in the assisted reproduction technology field, Toni is our Managing Paralegal, responsible for training and managing our paralegal staff. From drafting legal documents to assisting our clients with post-birth matters, Toni embraces the challenge of learning something new in this field each day. Besides spending time with her son, Jordan, Toni enjoys exploring new things, cooking, spending time with family and friends, and serving as a Youth Advisor for “Next Generation.”


Kim has over 30 years of experience in the legal field and has worked exclusively in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 1999. Kim is a senior case manager responsible for managing parental establishment cases and interacting with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorneys across the country. With three children of her own, Kim understands the importance of family and finds working in this area of law a rewarding experience.

Rich Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn combined his personal passion as a father of twin boys born via assisted reproductive technology (ART) with more than 20 years of experience in business and technology law to build International Fertility Law Group. Today IFLG is one of the most successful and best-known law firms in the world focused exclusively on fertility law, helping thousands of intended parents through empathetic listening, compassionate guidance, and unmatched legal expertise. As an advocate for reproductive freedom, Rich also contributes his knowledge and time to improving the understanding and practice of ART law, most recently as a founder of and speaker at the first Cambridge University International Surrogacy Symposium held in June 2019, as immediate past chair of the American Bar Association ART Committee, and as a popular presenter to law schools, faculty and advocacy organizations all over the world.

Elizabeth Tamayo

Elizabeth received her Bachelors of Science degree in Criminal Justice from California State University of Los Angeles. Shortly after graduating, she continued her education at the University of California, Los Angeles where she obtained her Paralegal certificate. Elizabeth is fluent in Spanish and has been in the legal field since 2009. She is excited to be a part of the IFLG Team helping families realize their dreams.

Sunny Chien

Sunny joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2017, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s international clients. She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy from California State University of Los Angeles, where she graduated cum laude. Sunny is bilingual in English and Mandarin and has extensive experience as a legal assistant and paralegal at Los Angeles-area law firms. She is excited to be part of the IFLG team. In her spare time, Sunny enjoys spending time with her family and their dog, going to the beach, cooking, and being outdoors.

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Molly O'Brien

Fertility law attorney Molly O’Brien began working in the field of assisted reproduction technology (ART) in 2005, at an egg donation agency and a surrogacy agency where she became familiar with all aspects of in-vitro fertilization, egg donation and the financial aspects of surrogacy. Since becoming an attorney in 2011, Molly has drafted and negotiated surrogacy, egg donation, sperm donation embryo donation agreements for hundreds of her clients all over the world.

Phoebe Sadler

Fertility law attorney Phoebe Sadler has a background in family law and has been practicing exclusively in the area of assisted reproduction technology (ART) law since 2018.

Rubina Aslanyan

Rubina has an extensive background in the legal field as a paralegal in Family Law and has worked in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 2012. Her area of focus is in managing and assisting clients with surrogacy, egg donation, and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s domestic and international clients. During her spare time, Rubina enjoys spending time with her family and dog Bella, traveling and cooking.

Alexander Espinoza
Legal Assistant

Alexander joined IFLG as a legal assistant in 2019, where he manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases. Alex is bilingual in English and Spanish and has been in the legal field for 23 years. Alex is excited to join the IFLG team and pursuing his will to help others in the reproductive law process. In his spare time he loves spending time with his family and friends, being outdoors, road trips, loves music and dancing.

Cara Stecker
Senior Paralegal

After receiving her paralegal certificate in 2005, Cara began working in assisted reproductive law. During the fifteen years Cara has worked in this field, she has gained a wide range of experience and knowledge that she uses to help better assist clients and those involved in the assisted reproductive journey. Cara’s primary roles involve managing parental establishment matters and coordination with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorney network, drafting contracts and parental establishment court documents and providing support to other team members. Cara finds great joy in being a small part of a team of caring people who help others achieve their dream of having a family. In her spare time, Cara enjoys spending time with her husband and three children, watching her children play the sports they love, and she enjoys, running, cycling and exploring the outdoors in the sun.

Stephanie Kimble

Stephanie received her BS in History and Political Thought from Concordia University Irvine in 2015 and her Paralegal Certificate from University of San Diego later that same year. She has been working as a Paralegal since 2016 in Family and Reproductive Law. She is excited to be part of International Fertility Law Group working on managing Surrogacy, Egg donation and Parental Establishment Cases.

Trish Pittman
Assistant Financial Coordinator

With more than 20 years of experience in the field of accounting, Trish joined the IFLG team in 2019 as Assistant Financial Coordinator. Her client-facing focus at IFLG is to assist with all client trust accounting. Trish is the mother of two daughters and enjoys spending time teaching and learning new things from them. In her free time, she loves long walks in the park and reading suspense and mystery novels.

Katie Deaquino
Senior Paralegal

Katie is a Senior Paralegal with IFLG and has dedicated over sixteen years to the areas of surrogacy and reproductive law. She received her Paralegal Certificate from Coastline Community College and has worked with some of the top law firms in the assisted reproduction community. Katie is also a commissioned Notary Public. With IFLG, Katie manages Surrogacy, Egg Donation, and Parental Establishment cases and provides support to other IFLG team members. Katie truly enjoys helping others build their families through assisted reproduction and is thankful she has had the rewarding experience of assisting IFLG clients. Katie often spends her free time with her Husband, four young children and her bulldog “Bella”.

Elsa Jimenez
Legal Assistant

Elsa joined IFLG as a Legal Assistant in 2019, bringing more than 35 years of experience working in the legal profession (concentrating in tort and litigation matters). At IFLG she assists surrogates with their surrogacy and parental matters. The oldest of five siblings, born and raised in East Los Angeles to Mexican immigrant parents, Elsa loves “seeing the beauty of families forming” through assisted reproductive technology. She and her husband Carlos have four children and one grandson. Elsa enjoys jazz and ’80s music, being outdoors in nature, collecting teacups and tea pots, and spending time with her close-knit family.