Rich-Vaughn-blog-Kansas Sperm Donor Trapped by DIY Insemination Loophole

Kansas Sperm Donor Trapped by DIY Insemination Loophole

The lawsuit by the state of Kansas against hapless sperm donor William Marotta of Topeka continues to make headlines. In case you unplugged during the holidays, here’s the back story: In 2009 Mr. Marotta responded to a Craig’s List ad soliciting a sperm donor to enable a lesbian couple, Angela Bauer and Jennifer Schreiner, to have a child together. All three parties signed a sperm donor agreement stating that Marotta would have no parental rights or responsibilities for the child. Marotta delivered sperm to the couple’s home, and the two women performed the insemination themselves. Schreiner became pregnant and gave birth to a daughter. Marotta says he was not paid for his donation.

In 2010, after eight years together, Bauer and Schreiner split up but continued to co-parent their eight children, including the daughter created using Marotta’s sperm. Schreiner subsequently contracted an illness that prevented her from working, so she enrolled her daughter to receive health insurance under the state’s Medicaid program.

That’s when things took a bad turn for Marotta. In order for the now 3-year-old child to qualify for benefits, the Kansas Department for Children and Families required that Schreiner disclose the name of the child’s biological father, the sperm donor. Under Kansas law, had the artificial insemination been performed by a licensed physician, the sperm donor would have been absolved of all parental responsibility. But because Bauer and Schreiner performed the insemination in the privacy of their own home, with no doctor involved, Kansas considers the sperm donor, Marotta, to be the legal father of the girl, and the state is pursuing him for $6,000 worth of back child support. Marotta, who told media he was unaware that the insemination would be performed without a doctor, has retained an attorney and is fighting the claim. An evidentiary hearing originally scheduled for January 8, 2013, has been rescheduled for April 9, according to the Topeka Capital Journal. Oral arguments in the case are scheduled to begin on June 17.

Angela de Rocha, spokeswoman for the DCF, told the Topeka Capital Journal on Monday that the department is only complying with state law. “Speaking generally, all individuals who apply for taxpayer-funded benefits through DCF are asked to cooperate with child support enforcement efforts,” de Rocha told the newspaper. “If a sperm donor makes his ‘contribution’ through a licensed physician and a child is conceived, the donor is held harmless under state statute. In cases where the parties do not go through a physician or a clinic, there remains the question of who actually is the father of a child or children. DCF is required by statute to establish paternity and then pursue child support from the noncustodial parent.”

While it seems ludicrous for the state of Kansas to go after Marotta, the basis for the law is the state’s interest in protecting babies. Thirty-five of 50 U.S. states have sperm donor statutes. In nearly every case, if the sperm donation is made through a licensed sperm bank or licensed clinic, the sperm donor is deemed not to be the father. However, most such laws do not absolve the sperm donor of parental obligation when the sperm donation is made outside the auspices of a licensed physician or clinic.

If states strictly interpret these statutes, and state financial aid is implicated in some way, the states will be looking to identify and pursue potential child support obligors and collect reimbursement for any aid that might be granted to the single parent. Most of these laws do not require the state to assess the INTENT of the donor and the recipients (in this case, the donor was never intended to be the father or treated as a father). If he qualifies as a parent/potential support obligor under state law, the state can go after him.

This is definitely an issue for the state legislatures to take up and, it is hoped, come up with laws that are more reflective of and up to date with current society and the vast array of possible ways in which families are formed through assisted reproduction.

This seems unlikely to happen quickly, so the need for and benefit of model legislation seems clear. There ARE two versions of the Uniform Parentage Act—one which was originally written in 1973 and later amended in 2000, and another version from 2002—and nine states have adopted versions of the UPA. The American Bar Association also has proposed a Model Act governing assisted reproduction. Such model legislation can be adopted by a state in whole or in part, to help it craft its own legislation. Given the complexity of this issue and many other ART issues, these model acts can serve a vital role. (Note: For more on the UPA and other issues surrounding LGBT parenting, my colleague, Courtney Joslin, has coauthored with Shannon P. Minter an excellent book, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Family Law (West 2012). The book is available through Westlaw at

Rich-Vaughn-Blog-SpermDonor-InseminationDIY inseminations such as Bauer and Schreiner’s are not uncommon. Many couples turn to voluntary sperm donors, sometimes friends or relatives. The motivation is often financial: artificial inseminations performed by a doctor or licensed fertility clinic can cost $3,000 or more—per round. Because artificial insemination often is not successful the first time, multiple rounds of insemination are sometimes required before pregnancy is achieved, the bill mounting by the thousands for each successive round.

However, there are dangers associated with non-medical inseminations—in addition to potential future paternity claims. With a licensed clinic, a sperm donor would be pre-screened for sexually transmitted diseases and genetic diseases. In fact, had Bauer, Schreiner and Marotta been living in Georgia when the insemination occurred, these three individuals would have committed a felony:  Pursuant to Georgia statute, O.C.G.A. § 43-34-37 (a) Physicians and surgeons licensed to practice medicine in accordance with and under this article shall be the only persons authorized to administer or perform artificial insemination upon any female human being. Any other person or persons who shall attempt to administer or perform or who shall actually administer or perform artificial insemination upon any female human being shall be guilty of a felony and, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary for not less than one year nor more than five years.

On one of the many news broadcasts about this case, the statement was made that this issue would never have arisen if the state of Kansas recognized same-sex relationships, because the names of both mothers would have been on the child’s birth certificate. (Kansas amended its constitution to ban same-sex marriages or civil unions in 2005.) Marotta’s attorney, Ben Swinnen, says he believes the state’s suit is politically motivated; the cost of litigation will far exceed the state’s $6,000 claim on Marotta, he says.

But it’s not same-sex marriage that is at issue in this case. In Kansas, there are only four ways to avoid a support obligation: (1) be a donor through a licensed clinic, (2) have parental rights terminated in court through a petition or if there is abuse or abandonment by that “parent,” (3) relinquish the child to an agency for adoption, or (4) the child is adopted by a parent. The applicable sperm donor statute in Kansas, 23-2208(f), pertains to any artificial insemination performed without the benefit of a licensed physician,  regardless of whether the inseminated mother is part of a heterosexual couple, a same-sex couple or is single. So even if Bauer and Schreiner were a legally married same sex-couple, the state of Kansas could (and apparently does) still interpret the sperm donor statute strictly—and it is looking for “dad” for purposes of enforcing a child support obligation or looking for reimbursement of state aid.

The same result would occur in Minnesota. In that state, a man who is the genetic father of a child is subject to the establishment of his legal parentage (against his will) unless he is expressly statutorily exempted from such an action.  A donor is only statutorily exempted from the presumption (and establishment) of legal parentage based on his genetics if he donates (1) to a married couple, (2) with the signed consent of the husband, (3) joined in by the wife, (4) under the supervision of a licensed physician  (Minnesota Statutes Section 257.56).  In Minnesota, if a sperm donor donated to a lesbian couple, the state can assert the sperm donor is a legal parent because he is genetically related to the child, donated to a lesbian couple, and the insemination was not done through a licensed physician.

What might have made a difference in Marotta’s case would be an update of Kansas’ parentage statutes to give legal recognition to a same-sex second parent.

The bottom line, and advice Mr. Marotta undoubtedly wishes he had received in 2009, is, if you are using genetics and trying to create babies, EVEN IF IT IS FOR A FAMILY MEMBER OR A FRIEND, talk to a lawyer first.

Richard Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn is founder and principal of International Fertility Law Group, one of the world’s largest and best-known law firms focused exclusively on assisted reproductive technology, or ART, including in vitro fertilization (IVF), surrogacy, sperm donation or egg donation. Rich is co-author of the book “Developing A Successful Assisted Reproduction Technology Law Practice,” American Bar Association Publishing, 2017.

Peiya Wang
Paralegal (律师助理)

Peiya Wang joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2015, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases and provides translation services for many of IFLG’s international clients. Peiya moved to the United States in 2012 to attend Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts, receiving a Master of Science degree in Global Studies and International Affairs in 2014. Peiya moved to Los Angeles in 2015, received her paralegal certification from UCLA Extension, and obtained her second Master of Science degree in Legal Studies from Loyola Law School. Peiya relocated back to her hometown, Beijing, China in 2019 and works from IFLG’s Beijing office. When away from the office, Peiya is a dragon boat paddler and a ballroom dancer, where she favors Rumbas and Cha-chas. She is fluent in Mandarin and English.

Luis Sosa

Luis R. Sosa joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2016, where he enjoys pursuing his passion for family and reproductive law. While working toward his bachelor’s degree at Florida International University which he received in 2013, Luis worked as a paralegal and legal assistant for family law litigation firms in Miami and Washington, D.C. As a paralegal and case manager for IFLG, Luis, who is bilingual in English and Spanish, manages surrogacy, egg donation and other reproductive law cases. Luis has worked for IFLG in both Los Angeles as well as San Francisco, and is currently based in Dallas, Texas. In addition to spending time with husband Randy and dog Marty, Luis enjoys being outdoors and appreciating the arts.

Toni Hughes

After receiving her B.S. in Business Management, Toni joined IFLG to pursue her dream of working in the legal field. As a Paralegal with over 10 years of experience in the assisted reproduction technology field, Toni is our Managing Paralegal, responsible for training and managing our paralegal staff. From drafting legal documents to assisting our clients with post-birth matters, Toni embraces the challenge of learning something new in this field each day. Besides spending time with her son, Jordan, Toni enjoys exploring new things, cooking, spending time with family and friends, and serving as a Youth Advisor for “Next Generation.”


Kim has over 30 years of experience in the legal field and has worked exclusively in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 1999. Kim is a senior case manager responsible for managing parental establishment cases and interacting with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorneys across the country. With three children of her own, Kim understands the importance of family and finds working in this area of law a rewarding experience.

Rich Vaughn

Attorney Rich Vaughn combined his personal passion as a father of twin boys born via assisted reproductive technology (ART) with more than 20 years of experience in business and technology law to build International Fertility Law Group. Today IFLG is one of the most successful and best-known law firms in the world focused exclusively on fertility law, helping thousands of intended parents through empathetic listening, compassionate guidance, and unmatched legal expertise. As an advocate for reproductive freedom, Rich also contributes his knowledge and time to improving the understanding and practice of ART law, most recently as a founder of and speaker at the first Cambridge University International Surrogacy Symposium held in June 2019, as immediate past chair of the American Bar Association ART Committee, and as a popular presenter to law schools, faculty and advocacy organizations all over the world.

Elizabeth Tamayo

Elizabeth received her Bachelors of Science degree in Criminal Justice from California State University of Los Angeles. Shortly after graduating, she continued her education at the University of California, Los Angeles where she obtained her Paralegal certificate. Elizabeth is fluent in Spanish and has been in the legal field since 2009. She is excited to be a part of the IFLG Team helping families realize their dreams.

Sunny Chien

Sunny joined IFLG as a paralegal in 2017, where she manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s international clients. She holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy from California State University of Los Angeles, where she graduated cum laude. Sunny is bilingual in English and Mandarin and has extensive experience as a legal assistant and paralegal at Los Angeles-area law firms. She is excited to be part of the IFLG team. In her spare time, Sunny enjoys spending time with her family and their dog, going to the beach, cooking, and being outdoors.

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Molly O'Brien

Fertility law attorney Molly O’Brien began working in the field of assisted reproduction technology (ART) in 2005, at an egg donation agency and a surrogacy agency where she became familiar with all aspects of in-vitro fertilization, egg donation and the financial aspects of surrogacy. Since becoming an attorney in 2011, Molly has drafted and negotiated surrogacy, egg donation, sperm donation embryo donation agreements for hundreds of her clients all over the world.

Phoebe Sadler

Fertility law attorney Phoebe Sadler has a background in family law and has been practicing exclusively in the area of assisted reproduction technology (ART) law since 2018.

Rubina Aslanyan

Rubina has an extensive background in the legal field as a paralegal in Family Law and has worked in surrogacy and assisted reproduction law since 2012. Her area of focus is in managing and assisting clients with surrogacy, egg donation, and parental establishment cases for many of IFLG’s domestic and international clients. During her spare time, Rubina enjoys spending time with her family and dog Bella, traveling and cooking.

Alexander Espinoza
Legal Assistant

Alexander joined IFLG as a legal assistant in 2019, where he manages surrogacy, egg donation and parental establishment cases. Alex is bilingual in English and Spanish and has been in the legal field for 23 years. Alex is excited to join the IFLG team and pursuing his will to help others in the reproductive law process. In his spare time he loves spending time with his family and friends, being outdoors, road trips, loves music and dancing.

Cara Stecker
Senior Paralegal

After receiving her paralegal certificate in 2005, Cara began working in assisted reproductive law. During the fifteen years Cara has worked in this field, she has gained a wide range of experience and knowledge that she uses to help better assist clients and those involved in the assisted reproductive journey. Cara’s primary roles involve managing parental establishment matters and coordination with IFLG’s Of Counsel attorney network, drafting contracts and parental establishment court documents and providing support to other team members. Cara finds great joy in being a small part of a team of caring people who help others achieve their dream of having a family. In her spare time, Cara enjoys spending time with her husband and three children, watching her children play the sports they love, and she enjoys, running, cycling and exploring the outdoors in the sun.

Stephanie Kimble

Stephanie received her BS in History and Political Thought from Concordia University Irvine in 2015 and her Paralegal Certificate from University of San Diego later that same year. She has been working as a Paralegal since 2016 in Family and Reproductive Law. She is excited to be part of International Fertility Law Group working on managing Surrogacy, Egg donation and Parental Establishment Cases.

Trish Pittman
Assistant Financial Coordinator

With more than 20 years of experience in the field of accounting, Trish joined the IFLG team in 2019 as Assistant Financial Coordinator. Her client-facing focus at IFLG is to assist with all client trust accounting. Trish is the mother of two daughters and enjoys spending time teaching and learning new things from them. In her free time, she loves long walks in the park and reading suspense and mystery novels.

Katie Deaquino
Senior Paralegal

Katie is a Senior Paralegal with IFLG and has dedicated over sixteen years to the areas of surrogacy and reproductive law. She received her Paralegal Certificate from Coastline Community College and has worked with some of the top law firms in the assisted reproduction community. Katie is also a commissioned Notary Public. With IFLG, Katie manages Surrogacy, Egg Donation, and Parental Establishment cases and provides support to other IFLG team members. Katie truly enjoys helping others build their families through assisted reproduction and is thankful she has had the rewarding experience of assisting IFLG clients. Katie often spends her free time with her Husband, four young children and her bulldog “Bella”.

Elsa Jimenez
Legal Assistant

Elsa joined IFLG as a Legal Assistant in 2019, bringing more than 35 years of experience working in the legal profession (concentrating in tort and litigation matters). At IFLG she assists surrogates with their surrogacy and parental matters. The oldest of five siblings, born and raised in East Los Angeles to Mexican immigrant parents, Elsa loves “seeing the beauty of families forming” through assisted reproductive technology. She and her husband Carlos have four children and one grandson. Elsa enjoys jazz and ’80s music, being outdoors in nature, collecting teacups and tea pots, and spending time with her close-knit family.